MISP is not only a software but also a series of data models created by the MISP community. MISP includes a simple and practical information sharing format expressed in JSON that can be used with MISP software or by any other software.

MISP Core Format

The MISP core format is a simple JSON format used by MISP and other tools to exchange events and attributes. The JSON schema 2.4 is described on the MISP core software and many sample files are available in the OSINT feed.

The MISP format is described as Internet-Draft in misp-rfc. The MISP format are described to support the developer or organisation willing to build your own tool supporting the MISP format (as import or export). The standard is built from practical use-cases and the implementation references within the MISP project. The standard is quickly evolving following the MISP implementation.

MISP default attributes and categories

Attribute Categories vs Types

Category Internal reference Targeting data Antivirus detection Payload delivery Artifacts dropped Payload installation
md5       X X X
sha1       X X X
sha256       X X X
filename       X X X
pdb         X  
filename|md5       X X X
filename|sha1       X X X
filename|sha256       X X X
ip-src       X    
ip-dst       X    
hostname       X    
domain       X    
domain|ip            
email-src       X    
email-dst       X    
email-subject       X    
email-attachment       X    
float            
url       X    
http-method            
user-agent       X    
regkey         X  
regkey|value         X  
AS       X    
snort            
pattern-in-file       X X X
pattern-in-traffic       X   X
pattern-in-memory         X X
yara       X X X
sigma       X X X
vulnerability       X   X
attachment     X X X X
malware-sample       X X X
link X   X X    
comment X X X X X X
text X   X X X X
hex X   X X X X
other X   X X X X
named pipe         X  
mutex         X  
target-user   X        
target-email   X        
target-machine   X        
target-org   X        
target-location   X        
target-external   X        
btc            
iban            
bic            
bank-account-nr            
aba-rtn            
bin            
cc-number            
prtn            
threat-actor            
campaign-name            
campaign-id            
malware-type       X   X
uri            
authentihash       X X X
ssdeep       X X X
imphash       X X X
pehash       X   X
impfuzzy       X X X
sha224       X X X
sha384       X X X
sha512       X X X
sha512/224       X X X
sha512/256       X X X
tlsh       X   X
filename|authentihash       X X X
filename|ssdeep       X X X
filename|imphash       X X X
filename|impfuzzy       X X X
filename|pehash       X X X
filename|sha224       X X X
filename|sha384       X X X
filename|sha512       X X X
filename|sha512/224       X X X
filename|sha512/256       X X X
filename|tlsh       X X X
windows-scheduled-task         X  
windows-service-name         X  
windows-service-displayname         X  
whois-registrant-email            
whois-registrant-phone            
whois-registrant-name            
whois-registrar            
whois-creation-date            
x509-fingerprint-sha1       X X X
dns-soa-email            
size-in-bytes            
counter            
datetime            
cpe            
port            
ip-dst|port       X    
ip-src|port       X    
hostname|port       X    
email-dst-display-name       X    
email-src-display-name       X    
email-header       X    
email-reply-to       X    
email-x-mailer       X    
email-mime-boundary       X    
email-thread-index       X    
email-message-id       X    
github-username            
github-repository            
github-organisation            
jabber-id            
twitter-id            
first-name            
middle-name            
last-name            
date-of-birth            
place-of-birth            
gender            
passport-number            
passport-country            
passport-expiration            
redress-number            
nationality            
visa-number            
issue-date-of-the-visa            
primary-residence            
country-of-residence            
special-service-request            
frequent-flyer-number            
travel-details            
payment-details            
place-port-of-original-embarkation            
place-port-of-clearance            
place-port-of-onward-foreign-destination            
passenger-name-record-locator-number            
mobile-application-id       X   X
Category Persistence mechanism Network activity Payload type Attribution External analysis Financial fraud
md5         X  
sha1         X  
sha256         X  
filename X       X  
pdb            
filename|md5         X  
filename|sha1         X  
filename|sha256         X  
ip-src   X     X  
ip-dst   X     X  
hostname   X     X  
domain   X     X  
domain|ip   X     X  
email-src            
email-dst   X        
email-subject            
email-attachment            
float            
url   X     X  
http-method   X        
user-agent   X     X  
regkey X       X  
regkey|value X       X  
AS   X     X  
snort   X     X  
pattern-in-file   X     X  
pattern-in-traffic   X     X  
pattern-in-memory         X  
yara            
sigma            
vulnerability         X  
attachment   X     X  
malware-sample         X  
link         X  
comment X X X X X X
text X X X X X X
hex X X       X
other X X X X X X
named pipe            
mutex            
target-user            
target-email            
target-machine            
target-org            
target-location            
target-external            
btc           X
iban           X
bic           X
bank-account-nr           X
aba-rtn           X
bin           X
cc-number           X
prtn           X
threat-actor       X    
campaign-name       X    
campaign-id       X    
malware-type            
uri   X        
authentihash            
ssdeep            
imphash            
pehash            
impfuzzy            
sha224            
sha384            
sha512            
sha512/224            
sha512/256            
tlsh            
filename|authentihash            
filename|ssdeep            
filename|imphash            
filename|impfuzzy            
filename|pehash            
filename|sha224            
filename|sha384            
filename|sha512            
filename|sha512/224            
filename|sha512/256            
filename|tlsh            
windows-scheduled-task            
windows-service-name            
windows-service-displayname            
whois-registrant-email       X    
whois-registrant-phone       X    
whois-registrant-name       X    
whois-registrar       X    
whois-creation-date       X    
x509-fingerprint-sha1   X   X X  
dns-soa-email            
size-in-bytes            
counter            
datetime            
cpe            
port            
ip-dst|port   X     X  
ip-src|port   X     X  
hostname|port            
email-dst-display-name            
email-src-display-name            
email-header            
email-reply-to            
email-x-mailer            
email-mime-boundary            
email-thread-index            
email-message-id            
github-username            
github-repository         X  
github-organisation            
jabber-id            
twitter-id            
first-name            
middle-name            
last-name            
date-of-birth            
place-of-birth            
gender            
passport-number            
passport-country            
passport-expiration            
redress-number            
nationality            
visa-number            
issue-date-of-the-visa            
primary-residence            
country-of-residence            
special-service-request            
frequent-flyer-number            
travel-details            
payment-details            
place-port-of-original-embarkation            
place-port-of-clearance            
place-port-of-onward-foreign-destination            
passenger-name-record-locator-number            
mobile-application-id            
Category Support Tool Social network Person Other
md5        
sha1        
sha256        
filename        
pdb        
filename|md5        
filename|sha1        
filename|sha256        
ip-src        
ip-dst        
hostname        
domain        
domain|ip        
email-src   X    
email-dst   X    
email-subject        
email-attachment        
float       X
url        
http-method        
user-agent        
regkey        
regkey|value        
AS        
snort        
pattern-in-file        
pattern-in-traffic        
pattern-in-memory        
yara        
sigma        
vulnerability        
attachment X      
malware-sample        
link X      
comment X X X X
text X X X X
hex X     X
other X X X X
named pipe        
mutex        
target-user        
target-email        
target-machine        
target-org        
target-location        
target-external        
btc        
iban        
bic        
bank-account-nr        
aba-rtn        
bin        
cc-number        
prtn        
threat-actor        
campaign-name        
campaign-id        
malware-type        
uri        
authentihash        
ssdeep        
imphash        
pehash        
impfuzzy        
sha224        
sha384        
sha512        
sha512/224        
sha512/256        
tlsh        
filename|authentihash        
filename|ssdeep        
filename|imphash        
filename|impfuzzy        
filename|pehash        
filename|sha224        
filename|sha384        
filename|sha512        
filename|sha512/224        
filename|sha512/256        
filename|tlsh        
windows-scheduled-task        
windows-service-name        
windows-service-displayname        
whois-registrant-email        
whois-registrant-phone        
whois-registrant-name        
whois-registrar        
whois-creation-date        
x509-fingerprint-sha1        
dns-soa-email        
size-in-bytes       X
counter       X
datetime       X
cpe       X
port       X
ip-dst|port        
ip-src|port        
hostname|port        
email-dst-display-name        
email-src-display-name        
email-header        
email-reply-to        
email-x-mailer        
email-mime-boundary        
email-thread-index        
email-message-id        
github-username   X    
github-repository   X    
github-organisation   X    
jabber-id   X    
twitter-id   X    
first-name     X  
middle-name     X  
last-name     X  
date-of-birth     X  
place-of-birth     X  
gender     X  
passport-number     X  
passport-country     X  
passport-expiration     X  
redress-number     X  
nationality     X  
visa-number     X  
issue-date-of-the-visa     X  
primary-residence     X  
country-of-residence     X  
special-service-request     X  
frequent-flyer-number     X  
travel-details     X  
payment-details     X  
place-port-of-original-embarkation     X  
place-port-of-clearance     X  
place-port-of-onward-foreign-destination     X  
passenger-name-record-locator-number     X  
mobile-application-id        

Categories

  • Internal reference: Reference used by the publishing party (e.g. ticket number)
  • Targeting data: Targeting information to include recipient email, infected machines, department, and or locations.
  • Antivirus detection: List of anti-virus vendors detecting the malware or information on detection performance (e.g. 13/43 or 67%). Attachment with list of detection or link to VirusTotal could be placed here as well.
  • Payload delivery: Information about the way the malware payload is initially delivered, for example information about the email or web-site, vulnerability used, originating IP etc. Malware sample itself should be attached here.
  • Artifacts dropped: Any artifact (files, registry keys etc.) dropped by the malware or other modifications to the system
  • Payload installation: Location where the payload was placed in the system and the way it was installed. For example, a filename md5 type attribute can be added here like this: c:\windows\system32\malicious.exe 41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e.
  • Persistence mechanism: Mechanisms used by the malware to start at boot. This could be a registry key, legitimate driver modification, LNK file in startup
  • Network activity: Information about network traffic generated by the malware
  • Payload type: Information about the final payload(s). Can contain a function of the payload, e.g. keylogger, RAT, or a name if identified, such as Poison Ivy.
  • Attribution: Identification of the group, organisation, or country behind the attack
  • External analysis: Any other result from additional analysis of the malware like tools output Examples: pdf-parser output, automated sandbox analysis, reverse engineering report.
  • Financial fraud: Financial Fraud indicators, for example: IBAN Numbers, BIC codes, Credit card numbers, etc.
  • Support Tool: Tools supporting analysis or detection of the event
  • Social network: Social networks and platforms
  • Person: A human being - natural person
  • Other: Attributes that are not part of any other category or are meant to be used as a component in MISP objects in the future

Types

  • md5: You are encouraged to use filename md5 instead. A checksum in md5 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • sha1: You are encouraged to use filename sha1 instead. A checksum in sha1 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • sha256: You are encouraged to use filename sha256 instead. A checksum in sha256 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • filename: Filename
  • pdb: Microsoft Program database (PDB) path information
  • **filename md5**: A filename and an md5 hash separated by a (no spaces)
  • **filename sha1**: A filename and an sha1 hash separated by a (no spaces)
  • **filename sha256**: A filename and an sha256 hash separated by a (no spaces)
  • ip-src: A source IP address of the attacker
  • ip-dst: A destination IP address of the attacker or C&C server. Also set the IDS flag on when this IP is hardcoded in malware
  • hostname: A full host/dnsname of an attacker. Also set the IDS flag on when this hostname is hardcoded in malware
  • domain: A domain name used in the malware. Use this instead of hostname when the upper domain is important or can be used to create links between events.
  • **domain ip**: A domain name and its IP address (as found in DNS lookup) separated by a (no spaces)
  • email-src: The email address used to send the malware.
  • email-dst: A recipient email address that is not related to your constituency.
  • email-subject: The subject of the email
  • email-attachment: File name of the email attachment.
  • float: A floating point value.
  • url: url
  • http-method: HTTP method used by the malware (e.g. POST, GET, …).
  • user-agent: The user-agent used by the malware in the HTTP request.
  • regkey: Registry key or value
  • **regkey value**: Registry value + data separated by
  • AS: Autonomous system
  • snort: An IDS rule in Snort rule-format. This rule will be automatically rewritten in the NIDS exports.
  • pattern-in-file: Pattern in file that identifies the malware
  • pattern-in-traffic: Pattern in network traffic that identifies the malware
  • pattern-in-memory: Pattern in memory dump that identifies the malware
  • yara: Yara signature
  • sigma: Sigma - Generic Signature Format for SIEM Systems
  • vulnerability: A reference to the vulnerability used in the exploit
  • attachment: Please upload files using the Upload Attachment button.
  • malware-sample: Please upload files using the Upload Attachment button.
  • link: Link to an external information
  • comment: Comment or description in a human language. This will not be correlated with other attributes
  • text: Name, ID or a reference
  • hex: A value in hexadecimal format
  • other: Other attribute
  • named pipe: Named pipe, use the format .\pipe<PipeName>
  • mutex: Mutex, use the format \BaseNamedObjects<Mutex>
  • target-user: Attack Targets Username(s)
  • target-email: Attack Targets Email(s)
  • target-machine: Attack Targets Machine Name(s)
  • target-org: Attack Targets Department or Organization(s)
  • target-location: Attack Targets Physical Location(s)
  • target-external: External Target Organizations Affected by this Attack
  • btc: Bitcoin Address
  • iban: International Bank Account Number
  • bic: Bank Identifier Code Number
  • bank-account-nr: Bank account number without any routing number
  • aba-rtn: ABA routing transit number
  • bin: Bank Identification Number
  • cc-number: Credit-Card Number
  • prtn: Premium-Rate Telephone Number
  • threat-actor: A string identifying the threat actor
  • campaign-name: Associated campaign name
  • campaign-id: Associated campaign ID
  • malware-type:
  • uri: Uniform Resource Identifier
  • authentihash: You are encouraged to use filename authentihash instead. Authenticode executable signature hash, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • ssdeep: You are encouraged to use filename ssdeep instead. A checksum in the SSDeep format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • imphash: You are encouraged to use filename imphash instead. A hash created based on the imports in the sample, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • pehash: PEhash - a hash calculated based of certain pieces of a PE executable file
  • impfuzzy: You are encouraged to use filename impfuzzy instead. A fuzzy hash created based on the imports in the sample, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • sha224: You are encouraged to use filename sha224 instead. A checksum in sha224 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • sha384: You are encouraged to use filename sha384 instead. A checksum in sha384 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • sha512: You are encouraged to use filename sha512 instead. A checksum in sha512 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • sha512/224: You are encouraged to use filename sha512/224 instead. A checksum in sha512/224 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • sha512/256: You are encouraged to use filename sha512/256 instead. A checksum in sha512/256 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • tlsh: You are encouraged to use filename tlsh instead. A checksum in the Trend Micro Locality Sensitive Hash format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • **filename authentihash**: A checksum in md5 format
  • **filename ssdeep**: A checksum in ssdeep format
  • **filename imphash**: Import hash - a hash created based on the imports in the sample.
  • **filename impfuzzy**: Import fuzzy hash - a fuzzy hash created based on the imports in the sample.
  • **filename pehash**: A filename and a PEhash separated by a
  • **filename sha224**: A filename and a sha-224 hash separated by a
  • **filename sha384**: A filename and a sha-384 hash separated by a
  • **filename sha512**: A filename and a sha-512 hash separated by a
  • **filename sha512/224**: A filename and a sha-512/224 hash separated by a
  • **filename sha512/256**: A filename and a sha-512/256 hash separated by a
  • **filename tlsh**: A filename and a Trend Micro Locality Sensitive Hash separated by a
  • windows-scheduled-task: A scheduled task in windows
  • windows-service-name: A windows service name. This is the name used internally by windows. Not to be confused with the windows-service-displayname.
  • windows-service-displayname: A windows service’s displayname, not to be confused with the windows-service-name. This is the name that applications will generally display as the service’s name in applications.
  • whois-registrant-email: The e-mail of a domain’s registrant, obtained from the WHOIS information.
  • whois-registrant-phone: The phone number of a domain’s registrant, obtained from the WHOIS information.
  • whois-registrant-name: The name of a domain’s registrant, obtained from the WHOIS information.
  • whois-registrar: The registrar of the domain, obtained from the WHOIS information.
  • whois-creation-date: The date of domain’s creation, obtained from the WHOIS information.
  • x509-fingerprint-sha1: X509 fingerprint in SHA-1 format
  • dns-soa-email: RFC1035 mandates that DNS zones should have a SOA (Statement Of Authority) record that contains an email address where a PoC for the domain could be contacted. This can sometimes be used for attribution/linkage between different domains even if protected by whois privacy
  • size-in-bytes: Size expressed in bytes
  • counter: An integer counter, generally to be used in objects
  • datetime: Datetime in the ISO 8601 format
  • cpe: Common platform enumeration
  • port: Port number
  • **ip-dst port**: IP destination and port number seperated by a
  • **ip-src port**: IP source and port number seperated by a
  • **hostname port**: Hostname and port number seperated by a
  • email-dst-display-name: Email destination display name
  • email-src-display-name: Email source display name
  • email-header: Email header
  • email-reply-to: Email reply to header
  • email-x-mailer: Email x-mailer header
  • email-mime-boundary: The email mime boundary separating parts in a multipart email
  • email-thread-index: The email thread index header
  • email-message-id:
  • github-username: A github user name
  • github-repository: A github repository
  • github-organisation: A github organisation
  • jabber-id: Jabber ID
  • twitter-id: Twitter ID
  • first-name: First name of a natural person
  • middle-name: Middle name of a natural person
  • last-name: Last name of a natural person
  • date-of-birth: Date of birth of a natural person (in YYYY-MM-DD format)
  • place-of-birth: Place of birth of a natural person
  • gender: The gender of a natural person (Male, Female, Other, Prefer not to say)
  • passport-number: The passport number of a natural person
  • passport-country: The country in which the passport was issued
  • passport-expiration: The expiration date of a passport
  • redress-number: The Redress Control Number is the record identifier for people who apply for redress through the DHS Travel Redress Inquiry Program (DHS TRIP). DHS TRIP is for travelers who have been repeatedly identified for additional screening and who want to file an inquiry to have erroneous information corrected in DHS systems
  • nationality: The nationality of a natural person
  • visa-number: Visa number
  • issue-date-of-the-visa: The date on which the visa was issued
  • primary-residence: The primary residence of a natural person
  • country-of-residence: The country of residence of a natural person
  • special-service-request: A Special Service Request is a function to an airline to provide a particular facility for A Passenger or passengers.
  • frequent-flyer-number: The frequent flyer number of a passenger
  • travel-details: Travel details
  • payment-details: Payment details
  • place-port-of-original-embarkation: The orignal port of embarkation
  • place-port-of-clearance: The port of clearance
  • place-port-of-onward-foreign-destination: A Port where the passenger is transiting to
  • passenger-name-record-locator-number: The Passenger Name Record Locator is a key under which the reservation for a trip is stored in the system. The PNR contains, among other data, the name, flight segments and address of the passenger. It is defined by a combination of five or six letters and numbers.
  • mobile-application-id: The application id of a mobile application

MISP Taxonomies

Along with the core format, MISP taxonomies provide a set of already defined classifications modeling estimative language, CSIRTs/CERTs classifications, national classifications or threat model classification. The fixed taxonomies provide a practical method to tag efficiently events and attributes within a set of MISP instances where taxonomies can be easily cherry-picked or extended to meet the local requirements of an organization or a specific sharing community. When using MISP, the MISP taxonomies are available and can be freely used based on the community practises.

The taxonomies can be browsed via the web site or downloaded as PDF or via the MISP software.

MISP Galaxy

MISP galaxy is a simple method to express a large object called cluster that can be attached to MISP events or attributes. A cluster can be composed of one or more elements. Elements are expressed as key-values. There are default vocabularies available in MISP galaxy but those can be overwritten, replaced or updated as you wish. Existing clusters and vocabularies can be used as-is or as a template. MISP distribution can be applied to each cluster to permit a limited or broader distribution scheme. Many MISP galaxy clusters are already available like Exploit-Kit, Microsoft Activity Group actor, Preventive Measure, Ransomware, TDS, Threat actor or Tool used by adversaries.

The galaxy can be browsed via the web site or downloaded as PDF or directly via the MISP software.