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MISP galaxy is a simple method to express a large object called cluster that can be attached to MISP events or attributes. A cluster can be composed of one or more elements. Elements are expressed as key-values. There are default vocabularies available in MISP galaxy but those can be overwritten, replaced or updated as you wish. Existing clusters and vocabularies can be used as-is or as a template. MISP distribution can be applied to each cluster to permit a limited or broader distribution scheme.

Exploit-Kit

Exploit-Kit is an enumeration of some exploitation kits used by adversaries. The list includes document, browser and router exploit kits.It’s not meant to be totally exhaustive but aim at covering the most seen in the past 5 years.

Exploit-Kit is a cluster galaxy available in JSON format at this location The JSON format can be freely reused in your application or automatically enabled in MISP.
authors

Kafeine - Will Metcalf - KahuSecurity

Astrum

Astrum Exploit Kit is a private Exploit Kit used in massive scale malvertising campaigns. It’s notable by its use of Steganography

Astrum is also known as:

  • Stegano EK

Table 1. Table References

Links

http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2014/09/astrum-ek.html

http://www.welivesecurity.com/2016/12/06/readers-popular-websites-targeted-stealthy-stegano-exploit-kit-hiding-pixels-malicious-ads/

Terror EK

Terror EK is built on Hunter, Sundown and RIG EK code

Terror EK is also known as:

  • Blaze EK

  • Neptune EK

Table 2. Table References

Links

https://www.trustwave.com/Resources/SpiderLabs-Blog/Terror-Exploit-Kit—​More-like-Error-Exploit-Kit/

DNSChanger

DNSChanger Exploit Kit is an exploit kit targeting Routers via the browser

DNSChanger is also known as:

  • RouterEK

Table 4. Table References

Links

http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2015/05/an-exploit-kit-dedicated-to-csrf.html

https://www.proofpoint.com/us/threat-insight/post/home-routers-under-attack-malvertising-windows-android-devices

Hunter

Hunter EK is an evolution of 3Ros EK

Hunter is also known as:

  • 3ROS Exploit Kit

Table 5. Table References

Links

https://www.proofpoint.com/us/threat-insight/post/Hunter-Exploit-Kit-Targets-Brazilian-Banking-Customers

Kaixin

Kaixin is an exploit kit mainly seen behind compromised website in Asia

Kaixin is also known as:

  • CK vip

Table 6. Table References

Links

http://www.kahusecurity.com/2013/deobfuscating-the-ck-exploit-kit/

http://www.kahusecurity.com/2012/new-chinese-exploit-pack/

MWI

Microsoft Word Intruder is an exploit kit focused on Word and embedded flash exploits. The author wants to avoid their customer to use it in mass spam campaign, so it’s most often connected to semi-targeted attacks

Table 8. Table References

Links

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2015/04/a_new_word_document.html

https://www.sophos.com/en-us/medialibrary/PDFs/technical%20papers/sophos-microsoft-word-intruder-revealed.pdf

Neutrino

Neutrino Exploit Kit has been one of the major exploit kit from its launch in 2013 till september 2016 when it become private (defense name for this variation is Neutrino-v). This EK vanished from march 2014 till november 2014.

Neutrino is also known as:

  • Job314

  • Neutrino Rebooted

  • Neutrino-v

Table 9. Table References

Links

http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2013/03/hello-neutrino-just-one-more-exploit-kit.html

http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2014/11/neutrino-come-back.html

RIG

RIG is an exploit kit that takes its source in Infinity EK itself an evolution of Redkit. It became dominant after the fall of Angler, Nuclear Pack and the end of public access to Neutrino. RIG-v is the name given to RIG 4 when it was only accessible by "vip" customers and when RIG 3 was still in use.

RIG is also known as:

  • RIG 3

  • RIG-v

  • RIG 4

  • Meadgive

Table 10. Table References

Links

http://www.kahusecurity.com/2014/rig-exploit-pack/

https://www.trustwave.com/Resources/SpiderLabs-Blog/RIG-Reloaded---Examining-the-Architecture-of-RIG-Exploit-Kit-3-0/

https://www.trustwave.com/Resources/SpiderLabs-Blog/RIG-Exploit-Kit-%E2%80%93-Diving-Deeper-into-the-Infrastructure/

http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2016/10/rig-evolves-neutrino-waves-goodbye.html

Bizarro Sundown

Bizarro Sundown appears to be a fork of Sundown with added anti-analysis features

Bizarro Sundown is also known as:

  • Sundown-b

Table 12. Table References

Links

http://blog.trendmicro.com/trendlabs-security-intelligence/new-bizarro-sundown-exploit-kit-spreads-locky/

https://blog.malwarebytes.com/cybercrime/exploits/2016/10/yet-another-sundown-ek-variant/

GreenFlash Sundown

GreenFlash Sundown is a variation of Bizarro Sundown without landing

GreenFlash Sundown is also known as:

  • Sundown-GF

Table 13. Table References

Links

http://blog.trendmicro.com/trendlabs-security-intelligence/new-bizarro-sundown-exploit-kit-spreads-locky/

Angler

The Angler Exploit Kit has been the most popular and evolved exploit kit from 2014 to middle of 2016. There was several variation. The historical "indexm" variant was used to spread Lurk. A vip version used notabily to spread Poweliks, the "standard" commercial version, and a declinaison tied to load selling (mostly bankers) that can be associated to EmpirePPC

Angler is also known as:

  • XXX

  • AEK

  • Axpergle

Table 14. Table References

Links

https://blogs.sophos.com/2015/07/21/a-closer-look-at-the-angler-exploit-kit/

http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2015/12/xxx-is-angler-ek.html

http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2016/06/is-it-end-of-angler.html

BlackHole

The BlackHole Exploit Kit has been the most popular exploit kit from 2011 to 2013. Its activity stopped with Paunch’s arrest (all activity since then is anecdotal and based on an old leak)

BlackHole is also known as:

  • BHEK

Table 16. Table References

Links

https://www.trustwave.com/Resources/SpiderLabs-Blog/Blackhole-Exploit-Kit-v2/

https://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/exploring-the-blackhole-exploit-kit/

Bleeding Life

Bleeding Life is an exploit kit that became open source with its version 2

Bleeding Life is also known as:

  • BL

  • BL2

Table 17. Table References

Links

http://www.kahusecurity.com/2011/flash-used-in-idol-malvertisement/

http://thehackernews.com/2011/10/bleeding-life-2-exploit-pack-released.html

Fiesta

Fiesta Exploit Kit

Fiesta is also known as:

  • NeoSploit

  • Fiexp

Table 19. Table References

Links

http://blog.0x3a.com/post/110052845124/an-in-depth-analysis-of-the-fiesta-exploit-kit-an

http://www.kahusecurity.com/2011/neosploit-is-back/

Empire

The Empire Pack is a variation of RIG operated by a load seller. It’s being fed by many traffic actors

Empire is also known as:

  • RIG-E

Table 20. Table References

Links

http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2016/10/rig-evolves-neutrino-waves-goodbye.html

FlashPack

FlashPack EK got multiple fork. The most common variant seen was the standalone Flash version

FlashPack is also known as:

  • FlashEK

  • SafePack

  • CritXPack

  • Vintage Pack

Table 21. Table References

Links

http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2012/11/meet-critxpack-previously-vintage-pack.html

http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2013/04/meet-safe-pack-v20-again.html

GrandSoft

GrandSoft Exploit Kit was a quite common exploit kit used in 2012/2013

GrandSoft is also known as:

  • StampEK

  • SofosFO

Table 22. Table References

Links

http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2013/09/FinallyGrandSoft.html

http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2012/10/neosploit-now-showing-bh-ek-20-like.html

https://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2012/08/24/sophos-sucks-malware/

HanJuan

Hanjuan EK was a one actor fed variation of Angler EK used in evolved malvertising chain targeting USA. It has been using a 0day (CVE-2015-0313) from beginning of December 2014 till beginning of February 2015

Table 23. Table References

Links

http://www.malwaresigs.com/2013/10/14/unknown-ek/

https://blog.malwarebytes.com/threat-analysis/2014/08/shining-some-light-on-the-unknown-exploit-kit/

http://blog.trendmicro.com/trendlabs-security-intelligence/a-closer-look-at-the-exploit-kit-in-cve-2015-0313-attack

https://twitter.com/kafeine/status/562575744501428226

Himan

Himan Exploit Kit

Himan is also known as:

  • High Load

Table 24. Table References

Links

http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2013/10/HiMan.html

Infinity

Infinity is an evolution of Redkit

Infinity is also known as:

  • Redkit v2.0

  • Goon

Table 26. Table References

Links

http://blog.talosintel.com/2013/11/im-calling-this-goon-exploit-kit-for-now.html

http://www.kahusecurity.com/2014/the-resurrection-of-redkit/

Nebula

Nebula Exploit Kit has been built on Sundown source and features an internal TDS

Table 28. Table References

Links

http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2017/03/nebula-exploit-kit.html

Niteris

Niteris was used mainly to target Russian.

Niteris is also known as:

  • CottonCastle

Table 29. Table References

Links

http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2014/06/cottoncastle.html

http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2015/05/another-look-at-niteris-post.html

Nuclear

The Nuclear Pack appeared in 2009 and has been one of the longer living one. Spartan EK was a landing less variation of Nuclear Pack

Nuclear is also known as:

  • NEK

  • Nuclear Pack

  • Spartan

  • Neclu

Table 30. Table References

Links

http://blog.checkpoint.com/2016/05/17/inside-nuclears-core-unraveling-a-ransomware-as-a-service-infrastructure/

Redkit

Redkit has been a major exploit kit in 2012. One of its specific features was to allow its access against a share of a percentage of the customer’s traffic

Table 33. Table References

Links

https://www.trustwave.com/Resources/SpiderLabs-Blog/A-Wild-Exploit-Kit-Appears----Meet-RedKit/

http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2012/05/inside-redkit.html

https://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2013/05/09/redkit-exploit-kit-part-2/

Sakura

Description Here

Table 34. Table References

Links

http://www.xylibox.com/2012/01/sakura-exploit-pack-10.html

Sundown

Sundown Exploit Kit is mainly built out of stolen code from other exploit kits

Sundown is also known as:

  • Beps

  • Xer

  • Beta

Table 35. Table References

Links

http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2015/06/fast-look-at-sundown-ek.html

https://www.virusbulletin.com/virusbulletin/2015/06/beta-exploit-pack-one-more-piece-crimeware-infection-road

Sweet-Orange

Sweet Orange

Sweet-Orange is also known as:

  • SWO

  • Anogre

Table 36. Table References

Links

http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2012/12/juice-sweet-orange-2012-12.html

Unknown

Unknown Exploit Kit. This is a place holder for any undocumented Exploit Kit. If you use this tag, we will be more than happy to give the associated EK a deep look.

Table 38. Table References

Links

https://twitter.com/kafeine

https://twitter.com/node5

https://twitter.com/kahusecurity

Microsoft Activity Group actor

Activity groups as described by Microsoft.

Microsoft Activity Group actor is a cluster galaxy available in JSON format at https://github.com/MISP/misp-galaxy/blob/master/clusters/microsoft activity group actor.json[this location] The JSON format can be freely reused in your application or automatically enabled in MISP.
authors

Various

PROMETHIUM

PROMETHIUM is an activity group that has been active as early as 2012. The group primarily uses Truvasys, a first-stage malware that has been in circulation for several years. Truvasys has been involved in several attack campaigns, where it has masqueraded as one of server common computer utilities, including WinUtils, TrueCrypt, WinRAR, or SanDisk. In each of the campaigns, Truvasys malware evolved with additional features—this shows a close relationship between the activity groups behind the campaigns and the developers of the malware.

Table 39. Table References

Links

https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/mmpc/2016/12/14/twin-zero-day-attacks-promethium-and-neodymium-target-individuals-in-europe/

NEODYMIUM

NEODYMIUM is an activity group that is known to use a backdoor malware detected by Microsoft as Wingbird. This backdoor’s characteristics closely match FinFisher, a government-grade commercial surveillance package. Data about Wingbird activity indicate that it is typically used to attack individual computers instead of networks.

Table 40. Table References

Links

https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/mmpc/2016/12/14/twin-zero-day-attacks-promethium-and-neodymium-target-individuals-in-europe/

TERBIUM

Microsoft Threat Intelligence identified similarities between this recent attack and previous 2012 attacks against tens of thousands of computers belonging to organizations in the energy sector. Microsoft Threat Intelligence refers to the activity group behind these attacks as TERBIUM, following our internal practice of assigning rogue actors chemical element names.

Table 41. Table References

Links

https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/mmpc/2016/12/09/windows-10-protection-detection-and-response-against-recent-attacks/

STRONTIUM

STRONTIUM has been active since at least 2007. Whereas most modern untargeted malware is ultimately profit-oriented, STRONTIUM mainly seeks sensitive information. Its primary institutional targets have included government bodies, diplomatic institutions, and military forces and installations in NATO member states and certain Eastern European countries. Additional targets have included journalists, political advisors, and organizations associated with political activism in central Asia. STRONTIUM is an activity group that usually targets government agencies, diplomatic institutions, and military organizations, as well as affiliated private sector organizations such as defense contractors and public policy research institutes. Microsoft has attributed more 0-day exploits to STRONTIUM than any other tracked group in 2016. STRONTIUM frequently uses compromised e-mail accounts from one victim to send malicious e-mails to a second victim and will persistently pursue specific targets for months until they are successful in compromising the victims’ computer.

STRONTIUM is also known as:

  • APT 28

  • APT28

  • Pawn Storm

  • Fancy Bear

  • Sednit

  • TsarTeam

  • TG-4127

  • Group-4127

  • Sofacy

  • Grey-Cloud

Table 42. Table References

Links

https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/mmpc/2016/11/01/our-commitment-to-our-customers-security/

http://download.microsoft.com/download/4/4/C/44CDEF0E-7924-4787-A56A-16261691ACE3/Microsoft_Security_Intelligence_Report_Volume_19_A_Profile_Of_A_Persistent_Adversary_English.pdf

https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/mmpc/2015/11/16/microsoft-security-intelligence-report-strontium/

DUBNIUM

DUBNIUM (which shares indicators with what Kaspersky researchers have called DarkHotel) is one of the activity groups that has been very active in recent years, and has many distinctive features.

DUBNIUM is also known as:

  • darkhotel

Table 43. Table References

Links

https://securelist.com/blog/research/71713/darkhotels-attacks-in-2015/

https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/mmpc/2016/06/09/reverse-engineering-dubnium-2

https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/mmpc/2016/06/20/reverse-engineering-dubniums-flash-targeting-exploit/

https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/mmpc/2016/07/14/reverse-engineering-dubnium-stage-2-payload-analysis/

PLATINUM

PLATINUM has been targeting its victims since at least as early as 2009, and may have been active for several years prior. Its activities are distinctly different not only from those typically seen in untargeted attacks, but from many targeted attacks as well. A large share of targeted attacks can be characterized as opportunistic: the activity group changes its target profiles and attack geographies based on geopolitical seasons, and may attack institutions all over the world. Like many such groups, PLATINUM seeks to steal sensitive intellectual property related to government interests, but its range of preferred targets is consistently limited to specific governmental organizations, defense institutes, intelligence agencies, diplomatic institutions, and telecommunication providers in South and Southeast Asia. The group’s persistent use of spear phishing tactics (phishing attempts aimed at specific individuals) and access to previously undiscovered zero-day exploits have made it a highly resilient threat.

Table 44. Table References

Links

https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/mmpc/2016/04/26/digging-deep-for-platinum/

http://download.microsoft.com/download/2/2/5/225BFE3E-E1DE-4F5B-A77B-71200928D209/Platinum%20feature%20article%20-%20Targeted%20attacks%20in%20South%20and%20Southeast%20Asia%20April%202016.pdf

BARIUM

Microsoft Threat Intelligence associates Winnti with multiple activity groups—collections of malware, supporting infrastructure, online personas, victimology, and other attack artifacts that the Microsoft intelligent security graph uses to categorize and attribute threat activity. Microsoft labels activity groups using code names derived from elements in the periodic table. In the case of this malware, the activity groups strongly associated with Winnti are BARIUM and LEAD. But even though they share the use of Winnti, the BARIUM and LEAD activity groups are involved in very different intrusion scenarios. BARIUM begins its attacks by cultivating relationships with potential victims—particularly those working in Business Development or Human Resources—on various social media platforms. Once BARIUM has established rapport, they spear-phish the victim using a variety of unsophisticated malware installation vectors, including malicious shortcut (.lnk) files with hidden payloads, compiled HTML help (.chm) files, or Microsoft Office documents containing macros or exploits. Initial intrusion stages feature the Win32/Barlaiy implant—notable for its use of social network profiles, collaborative document editing sites, and blogs for C&C. Later stages of the intrusions rely upon Winnti for persistent access. The majority of victims recorded to date have been in electronic gaming, multimedia, and Internet content industries, although occasional intrusions against technology companies have occurred.

Table 45. Table References

Links

https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/mmpc/2017/01/25/detecting-threat-actors-in-recent-german-industrial-attacks-with-windows-defender-atp/

LEAD

In contrast, LEAD has established a far greater reputation for industrial espionage. In the past few years, LEAD’s victims have included: Multinational, multi-industry companies involved in the manufacture of textiles, chemicals, and electronics Pharmaceutical companies A company in the chemical industry University faculty specializing in aeronautical engineering and research A company involved in the design and manufacture of motor vehicles A cybersecurity company focusing on protecting industrial control systems During these intrusions, LEAD’s objective was to steal sensitive data, including research materials, process documents, and project plans. LEAD also steals code-signing certificates to sign its malware in subsequent attacks. In most cases, LEAD’s attacks do not feature any advanced exploit techniques. The group also does not make special effort to cultivate victims prior to an attack. Instead, the group often simply emails a Winnti installer to potential victims, relying on basic social engineering tactics to convince recipients to run the attached malware. In some other cases, LEAD gains access to a target by brute-forcing remote access login credentials, performing SQL injection, or exploiting unpatched web servers, and then they copy the Winnti installer directly to compromised machines.

Table 46. Table References

Links

https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/mmpc/2017/01/25/detecting-threat-actors-in-recent-german-industrial-attacks-with-windows-defender-atp/

ZIRCONIUM

In addition to strengthening generic detection of EoP exploits, Microsoft security researchers are actively gathering threat intelligence and indicators attributable to ZIRCONIUM, the activity group using the CVE-2017-0005 exploit.

Table 47. Table References

Links

https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/mmpc/2017/03/27/detecting-and-mitigating-elevation-of-privilege-exploit-for-cve-2017-0005/

Attack Pattern

ATT&CK tactic.

Attack Pattern is a cluster galaxy available in JSON format at https://github.com/MISP/misp-galaxy/blob/master/clusters/attack pattern.json[this location] The JSON format can be freely reused in your application or automatically enabled in MISP.
authors

MITRE

Exfiltration Over Alternative Protocol

Data exfiltration is performed with a different protocol from the main command and control protocol or channel. The data is likely to be sent to an alternate network location from the main command and control server. Alternate protocols include FTP, SMTP, HTTP/S, DNS, or some other network protocol. Different channels could include Internet Web services such as cloud storage.

Detection: Analyze network data for uncommon data flows (e.g., a client sending significantly more data than it receives from a server). Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Analyze packet contents to detect communications that do not follow the expected protocol behavior for the port that is being used.[[Citation: University of Birmingham C2]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: User interface, Process monitoring, Process use of network, Packet capture, Netflow/Enclave netflow, Network protocol analysis

Table 48. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1048

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1408/1408.1136.pdf

Standard Application Layer Protocol

Adversaries may communicate using a common, standardized application layer protocol such as HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, or DNS to avoid detection by blending in with existing traffic. Commands to the remote system, and often the results of those commands, will be embedded within the protocol traffic between the client and server.

For connections that occur internally within an enclave (such as those between a proxy or pivot node and other nodes), commonly used protocols are RPC, SSH, or RDP.

Detection: Analyze network data for uncommon data flows (e.g., a client sending significantly more data than it receives from a server). Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Analyze packet contents to detect application layer protocols that do not follow the expected protocol for the port that is being used.[[Citation: University of Birmingham C2]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Packet capture, Netflow/Enclave netflow, Process use of network, Malware reverse engineering, Process monitoring

Table 49. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1071

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1408/1408.1136.pdf

Communication Through Removable Media

Adversaries can perform command and control between compromised hosts on potentially disconnected networks using removable media to transfer commands from system to system. Both systems would need to be compromised, with the likelihood that an Internet-connected system was compromised first and the second through lateral movement by Replication Through Removable Media. Commands and files would be relayed from the disconnected system to the Internet-connected system to which the adversary has direct access.

Detection: Monitor file access on removable media. Detect processes that execute when removable media is mounted.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Data loss prevention

Table 50. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1092

Custom Command and Control Protocol

Adversaries may communicate using a custom command and control protocol instead of using existing Standard Application Layer Protocol to encapsulate commands. Implementations could mimic well-known protocols.

Detection: Analyze network data for uncommon data flows (e.g., a client sending significantly more data than it receives from a server). Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Analyze packet contents to detect communications that do not follow the expected protocol behavior for the port that is being used.[[Citation: University of Birmingham C2]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Packet capture, Netflow/Enclave netflow, Process use of network, Process monitoring

Table 51. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1094

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1408/1408.1136.pdf

File System Permissions Weakness

Processes may automatically execute specific binaries as part of their functionality or to perform other actions. If the permissions on the file system directory containing a target binary, or permissions on the binary itself, are improperly set, then the target binary may be overwritten with another binary using user-level permissions and executed by the original process. If the original process and thread are running under a higher permissions level, then the replaced binary will also execute under higher-level permissions, which could include SYSTEM.

Adversaries may use this technique to replace legitimate binaries with malicious ones as a means of executing code at a higher permissions level. If the executing process is set to run at a specific time or during a certain event (e.g., system bootup) then this technique can also be used for persistence.

===Services===

Manipulation of Windows service binaries is one variation of this technique. Adversaries may replace a legitimate service executable with their own executable to gain persistence and/or privilege escalation to the account context the service is set to execute under (local/domain account, SYSTEM, LocalService, or NetworkService). Once the service is started, either directly by the user (if appropriate access is available) or through some other means, such as a system restart if the service starts on bootup, the replaced executable will run instead of the original service executable.

===Executable Installers===

Another variation of this technique can be performed by taking advantage of a weakness that is common in executable, self-extracting installers. During the installation process, it is common for installers to use a subdirectory within the <code>%TEMP%</code> directory to unpack binaries such as DLLs, EXEs, or other payloads. When installers create subdirectories and files they often do not set appropriate permissions to restrict write access, which allows for execution of untrusted code placed in the subdirectories or overwriting of binaries used in the installation process. This behavior is related to and may take advantage of DLL Search Order Hijacking. Some installers may also require elevated privileges that will result in privilege escalation when executing adversary controlled code. This behavior is related to Bypass User Account Control. Several examples of this weakness in existing common installers have been reported to software vendors.[[Citation: Mozilla Firefox Installer DLL Hijack]][[Citation: Seclists Kanthak 7zip Installer]]

Detection: Look for changes to binaries and service executables that may normally occur during software updates. If an executable is written, renamed, and/or moved to match an existing service executable, it could be detected and correlated with other suspicious behavior. Hashing of binaries and service executables could be used to detect replacement against historical data.

Look for abnormal process call trees from typical processes and services and for execution of other commands that could relate to or other adversary techniques.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process command-line parameters, Services

Effective Permissions: User, Administrator, SYSTEM

Contributors: Stefan Kanthak

Table 52. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1044

http://seclists.org/fulldisclosure/2015/Dec/34

https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/security/advisories/mfsa2012-98/

Process Hollowing

Process hollowing occurs when a process is created in a suspended state and the process’s memory is replaced with the code of a second program so that the second program runs instead of the original program. Windows and process monitoring tools believe the original process is running, whereas the actual program running is different.DLL Injection to evade defenses and detection analysis of malicious process execution by launching adversary-controlled code under the context of a legitimate process.

Detection: Monitoring API calls may generate a significant amount of data and may not be directly useful for defense unless collected under specific circumstances for known bad sequences of calls, since benign use of API functions may be common and difficult to distinguish from malicious behavior.

Analyze process behavior to determine if a process is performing actions it usually does not, such as opening network connections, reading files, or other suspicious actions that could relate to post-compromise behavior.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Process monitoring, API monitoring

Table 53. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1093

http://www.autosectools.com/process-hollowing.pdf

Scripting

Adversaries may use scripts to aid in operations and perform multiple actions that would otherwise be manual. Scripting is useful for speeding up operational tasks and reducing the time required to gain access to critical resources. Some scripting languages may be used to bypass process monitoring mechanisms by directly interacting with the operating system at an API level instead of calling other programs. Common scripting languages for Windows include VBScript and PowerShell but could also be in the form of command-line batch scripts.

Many popular offensive frameworks exist which use forms of scripting for security testers and adversaries alike. Metasploit[[Citation: Metasploit]], Veil[[Citation: Veil]], and PowerSploit[[Citation: Powersploit]] are three examples that are popular among penetration testers for exploit and post-compromise operations and include many features for evading defenses. Some adversaries are known to use PowerShell.[[Citation: Alperovitch 2014]]

Detection: Scripting may be common on admin, developer, or power user systems, depending on job function. If scripting is restricted for normal users, then any attempts to enable scripts running on a system would be considered suspicious. If scripts are not commonly used on a system, but enabled, scripts running out of cycle from patching or other administrator functions are suspicious. Scripts should be captured from the file system when possible to determine their actions and intent.

Scripts are likely to perform actions with various effects on a system that may generate events, depending on the types of monitoring used. Monitor processes and command-line arguments for script execution and subsequent behavior. Actions may be related to network and system information , , or other scriptable post-compromise behaviors and could be used as indicators of detection leading back to the source script.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Process monitoring, File monitoring, Process command-line parameters

Table 54. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1064

http://blog.crowdstrike.com/deep-thought-chinese-targeting-national-security-think-tanks/

http://www.metasploit.com

https://github.com/mattifestation/PowerSploit

https://www.veil-framework.com/framework/

Data from Removable Media

Sensitive data can be collected from any removable media (optical disk drive, USB memory, etc.) connected to the compromised system prior to cmd may be used to gather information. Some adversaries may also use Automated Collection on removable media.

Detection: Monitor processes and command-line arguments for actions that could be taken to collect files from a system’s connected removable media. Remote access tools with built-in features may interact directly with the Windows API to gather data. Data may also be acquired through Windows system management tools such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process monitoring, Process command-line parameters

Table 55. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1025

Code Signing

Code signing provides a level of authenticity on a binary from the developer and a guarantee that the binary has not been tampered with.[[Citation: Wikipedia Code Signing]] However, adversaries are known to use code signing certificates to masquerade malware and tools as legitimate binaries. The certificates used during an operation may be created, forged, or stolen by the adversary.[[Citation: Securelist Digital Certificates]][[Citation: Symantec Digital Certificates]]

Code signing certificates may be used to bypass security policies that require signed code to execute on a system.

Detection: Collect and analyze signing certificate metadata on software that executes within the environment to look for unusual certificate characteristics and outliers.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Binary file metadata

Table 56. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1116

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code%20signing

https://securelist.com/blog/security-policies/68593/why-you-shouldnt-completely-trust-files-signed-with-digital-certificates/

http://www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/how-attackers-steal-private-keys-digital-certificates

Rootkit

Rootkits are programs that hide the existence of malware by intercepting and modifying operating system API calls that supply system information. Rootkits or rootkit enabling functionality may reside at the user or kernel level in the operating system or lower, to include a Hypervisor, Master Boot Record, or the Basic Input/Output System.[[Citation: Wikipedia Rootkit]]

Adversaries may use rootkits to hide the presence of programs, files, network connections, services, drivers, and other system components.

Detection: Some rootkit protections may be built into anti-virus or operating system software. There are dedicated rootkit detection tools that look for specific types of rootkit behavior. Monitor for the existence of unrecognized DLLs, devices, services, and changes to the MBR.[[Citation: Wikipedia Rootkit]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: BIOS, MBR, System calls

Table 57. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1014

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rootkit

Command-Line Interface

Command-line interfaces provide a way of interacting with computer systems and is a common feature across many types of operating system platforms.cmd, which can be used to perform a number of tasks including execution of other software. Command-line interfaces can be interacted with locally or remotely via a remote desktop application, reverse shell session, etc. Commands that are executed run with the current permission level of the command-line interface process unless the command includes process invocation that changes permissions context for that execution (e.g. Scheduled Task).

Adversaries may use command-line interfaces to interact with systems and execute other software during the course of an operation.

Detection: Command-line interface activities can be captured through proper logging of process execution with command-line arguments. This information can be useful in gaining additional insight to adversaries' actions through how they use native processes or custom tools.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1, Linux

Data Sources: Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 58. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1059

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Command-line%20interface

Exfiltration Over Command and Control Channel

Data exfiltration is performed over the [[Command and Control]] channel. Data is encoded into the normal communications channel using the same protocol as command and control communications.

Detection: Detection for command and control applies. Analyze network data for uncommon data flows (e.g., a client sending significantly more data than it receives from a server). Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Analyze packet contents to detect communications that do not follow the expected protocol behavior for the port that is being used.[[Citation: University of Birmingham C2]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: User interface, Process monitoring

Table 59. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1041

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1408/1408.1136.pdf

Multi-Stage Channels

Adversaries may create multiple stages for command and control that are employed under different conditions or for certain functions. Use of multiple stages may obfuscate the command and control channel to make detection more difficult.

Remote access tools will call back to the first-stage command and control server for instructions. The first stage may have automated capabilities to collect basic host information, update tools, and upload additional files. A second remote access tool (RAT) could be uploaded at that point to redirect the host to the second-stage command and control server. The second stage will likely be more fully featured and allow the adversary to interact with the system through a reverse shell and additional RAT features.

The different stages will likely be hosted separately with no overlapping infrastructure. The loader may also have backup first-stage callbacks or Fallback Channels in case the original first-stage communication path is discovered and blocked.

Detection: Host data that can relate unknown or suspicious process activity using a network connection is important to supplement any existing indicators of compromise based on malware command and control signatures and infrastructure. Relating subsequent actions that may result from of the system and network information or [[Lateral Movement]] to the originating process may also yield useful data.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Netflow/Enclave netflow, Network device logs, Network protocol analysis, Packet capture, Process use of network

Table 60. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1104

Input Capture

Adversaries can use methods of capturing user input for obtaining credentials for Legitimate Credentials and information Credential Dumping efforts are not effective, and may require an adversary to remain passive on a system for a period of time before an opportunity arises.

Adversaries may also install code on externally facing portals, such as a VPN login page, to capture and transmit credentials of users who attempt to log into the service. This variation on input capture may be conducted post-compromise using legitimate administrative access as a backup measure to maintain network access through External Remote Services and Legitimate Credentials or as part of the initial compromise by exploitation of the externally facing web service.Legitimate Credentials in use by adversaries may help to catch the result of user input interception if new techniques are used.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Windows Registry, Kernel drivers, Process monitoring, API monitoring

Contributors: John Lambert, Microsoft Threat Intelligence Center

Table 61. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1056

http://blog.leetsys.com/2012/01/02/capturing-windows-7-credentials-at-logon-using-custom-credential-provider/

https://www.volexity.com/blog/2015/10/07/virtual-private-keylogging-cisco-web-vpns-leveraged-for-access-and-persistence/

Regsvcs/Regasm

Regsvcs and Regasm are Windows command-line utilities that are used to register .NET Component Object Model (COM) assemblies. Both are digitally signed by Microsoft.[[Citation: MSDN Regsvcs]][[Citation: MSDN Regasm]]

Adversaries can use Regsvcs and Regasm to proxy execution of code through a trusted Windows utility. Both utilities may be used to bypass process whitelisting through use of attributes within the binary to specify code that should be run before registration or unregistration: <code>[ComRegisterFunction]</code> or <code>[ComUnregisterFunction]</code> respectively. The code with the registration and unregistration attributes will be executed even if the process is run under insufficient privileges and fails to execute.[[Citation: SubTee Regsvcs Regasm Whitelist Bypass]]

Detection: Use process monitoring to monitor the execution and arguments of Regsvcs.exe and Regasm.exe. Compare recent invocations of Regsvcs.exe and Regasm.exe with prior history of known good arguments and executed binaries to determine anomalous and potentially adversarial activity. Command arguments used before and after Regsvcs.exe or Regasm.exe invocation may also be useful in determining the origin and purpose of the binary being executed.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Process monitoring, Process command-line parameters

Contributors: Casey Smith

Table 62. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1121

https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/04za0hca.aspx

https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/tzat5yw6.aspx

http://subt0x10.blogspot.com/2015/11/all-natural-organic-free-range.html

MSBuild

MSBuild.exe (Microsoft Build Engine) is a software build platform used by Visual Studio. It takes XML formatted project files that define requirements for building various platforms and configurations.[[Citation: MSDN MSBuild]]

Adversaries can use MSBuild to proxy execution of code through a trusted Windows utility. The inline task capability of MSBuild that was introduced in .NET version 4 allows for C# code to be inserted into the XML project file.[[Citation: MSDN MSBuild Inline Tasks]] MSBuild will compile and execute the inline task. MSBuild.exe is a signed Microsoft binary, so when it is used this way it can execute arbitrary code and bypass application whitelisting defenses that are configured to allow MSBuild.exe execution.[[Citation: SubTee MSBuild]]

Detection: Use process monitoring to monitor the execution and arguments of MSBuild.exe. Compare recent invocations of MSBuild.exe with prior history of known good arguments and executed binaries to determine anomalous and potentially adversarial activity. It is likely that MSBuild will be used by software developers, so if it exists and is used outside of that context, then the event may be suspicious. Command arguments used before and after the MSBuild.exe invocation may also be useful in determining the origin and purpose of the binary being executed.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Process monitoring

Contributors: Casey Smith

Table 63. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1127

https://msdn.microsoft.com/library/dd722601.aspx

https://subt0x10.blogspot.com/2016/09/bypassing-application-whitelisting.html

https://msdn.microsoft.com/library/dd393574.aspx

Local Network Configuration Discovery

Adversaries will likely look for details about the network configuration and settings of systems they access. Several operating system administration utilities exist that can be used to gather this information. Examples include Arp, ipconfig/ifconfig, nbtstat, and route.

Detection: System and network discovery techniques normally occur throughout an operation as an adversary learns the environment. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities, such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 64. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1016

Scheduled Task

Utilities such as at and schtasks, along with the Windows Task Scheduler, can be used to schedule programs or scripts to be executed at a date and time. The account used to create the task must be in the Administrators group on the local system. A task can also be scheduled on a remote system, provided the proper authentication is met to use RPC and file and printer sharing is turned on.Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell, so additional logging may need to be configured to gather the appropriate data.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Effective Permissions: Administrator, SYSTEM

Table 65. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1053

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb963902

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc785125.aspx

Windows Management Instrumentation

Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) is a Windows administration feature that provides a uniform environment for local and remote access to Windows system components. It relies on the WMI service for local and remote access and the server message block (SMB)[[Citation: Wikipedia SMB]] and Remote Procedure Call Service (RPCS)[[Citation: TechNet RPC]] for remote access. RPCS operates over port 135.[[Citation: MSDN WMI]]

An adversary can use WMI to interact with local and remote systems and use it as a means to perform many tactic functions, such as gathering information for and remote of files as part of [[Lateral Movement]].[[Citation: FireEye WMI 2015]]

Detection: Monitor network traffic for WMI connections; the use of WMI in environments that do not typically use WMI may be suspect. Perform process monitoring to capture command-line arguments of "wmic" and detect commands that are used to perform remote behavior.[[Citation: FireEye WMI 2015]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Authentication logs, Netflow/Enclave netflow, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 66. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1047

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc787851.aspx

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Server%20Message%20Block

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/global/en/current-threats/pdfs/wp-windows-management-instrumentation.pdf

https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa394582.aspx

NTFS Extended Attributes

Data or executables may be stored in New Technology File System (NTFS) partition metadata instead of directly in files. This may be done to evade some defenses, such as static indicator scanning tools and anti-virus.[[Citation: Journey into IR ZeroAccess NTFS EA]]

The NTFS format has a feature called Extended Attributes (EA), which allows data to be stored as an attribute of a file or folder.[[Citation: Microsoft File Streams]]

Detection: Forensic techniques exist to identify information stored in EA.[[Citation: Journey into IR ZeroAccess NTFS EA]] It may be possible to monitor NTFS for writes or reads to NTFS EA or to regularly scan for the presence of modified information.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Kernel drivers

Table 67. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1096

http://journeyintoir.blogspot.com/2012/12/extracting-zeroaccess-from-ntfs.html

http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa364404

Process Discovery

Adversaries may attempt to get information about running processes on a system. An example command that would obtain details on processes is "tasklist" using the Tasklist utility.

Information obtained could be used to gain an understanding of common software running on systems within the network.

Detection: System and network discovery techniques normally occur throughout an operation as an adversary learns the environment. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities, such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1, Linux

Data Sources: Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 68. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1057

Basic Input/Output System

The BIOS (Basic Input/Output System), which underlies the functionality of a computer, may be modified to perform or assist in malicious activity.[[Citation: Wikipedia BIOS]]

Capabilities exist to overwrite the system firmware, which may give sophisticated adversaries a means to install malicious firmware updates as a means of persistence on a system that may be difficult to detect.

The Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) is new specification for the interface between platform firmware and a computer operating system.[[Citation: About UEFI]]

Detection: Firmware manipulation may be detected.[[Citation: MITRE Trustworthy Firmware Measurement]] Dump and inspect BIOS images on vulnerable systems and compare against known good images.[[Citation: MITRE Copernicus]] Analyze differences to determine if malicious changes have occurred. Log attempts to read/write to BIOS and compare against known patching behavior.

Likewise, extensible firmware interface (EFI) modules can be collected and compared against a known-clean list of EFI executable binaries to detect potentially malicious modules. The CHIPSEC framework can be used for analysis to determine if firmware modifications have been performed.[[Citation: McAfee CHIPSEC Blog]][[Citation: Github CHIPSEC]][[Citation: Intel HackingTeam UEFI Rootkit]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: API monitoring, BIOS

Table 69. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1019

https://securingtomorrow.mcafee.com/business/chipsec-support-vault-7-disclosure-scanning/

http://www.intelsecurity.com/advanced-threat-research/content/data/HT-UEFI-rootkit.html

https://github.com/chipsec/chipsec

http://www.uefi.org/about

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BIOS

http://www.mitre.org/publications/project-stories/going-deep-into-the-bios-with-mitre-firmware-security-research

http://www.mitre.org/capabilities/cybersecurity/overview/cybersecurity-blog/copernicus-question-your-assumptions-about

Registry Run Keys / Start Folder

Adding an entry to the "run keys" in the Registry or startup folder will cause the program referenced to be executed when a user logs in.Masquerading to make the Registry entries look as if they are associated with legitimate programs.

Detection: Monitor Registry for changes to run keys that do not correlate with known software, patch cycles, etc. Monitor the start folder for additions or changes. Tools such as Sysinternals Autoruns may also be used to detect system changes that could be attempts at persistence, including listing the run keys' Registry locations and startup folders.[[Citation: TechNet Autoruns]] Suspicious program execution as startup programs may show up as outlier processes that have not been seen before when compared against historical data.

Changes to these locations typically happen under normal conditions when legitimate software is installed. To increase confidence of malicious activity, data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities, such as network connections made for [[Command and Control]], learning details about the environment through , and [[Lateral Movement]].

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Windows Registry, File monitoring

Table 70. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1060

http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa376977

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb963902

Service Execution

Adversaries may execute a binary, command, or script via a method that interacts with Windows services, such as the Service Control Manager. This can be done by either creating a new service or modifying an existing service. This technique is the execution used in conjunction with New Service and Modify Existing Service during service persistence or privilege escalation.

Detection: Changes to service Registry entries and command-line invocation of tools capable of modifying services that do not correlate with known software, patch cycles, etc., may be suspicious. If a service is used only to execute a binary or script and not to persist, then it will likely be changed back to its original form shortly after the service is restarted so the service is not left broken, as is the case with the common administrator tool PsExec.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Windows Registry, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 71. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1035

Uncommonly Used Port

Adversaries may conduct C2 communications over a non-standard port to bypass proxies and firewalls that have been improperly configured.

Detection: Analyze network data for uncommon data flows (e.g., a client sending significantly more data than it receives from a server). Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Analyze packet contents to detect communications that do not follow the expected protocol behavior for the port that is being used.[[Citation: University of Birmingham C2]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Netflow/Enclave netflow, Process use of network, Process monitoring

Table 72. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1065

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1408/1408.1136.pdf

Data Staged

Collected data is staged in a central location or directory prior to Data Compressed or Data Encrypted.

Interactive command shells may be used, and common functionality within cmd may be used to copy data into a staging location.

Detection: Processes that appear to be reading files from disparate locations and writing them to the same directory or file may be an indication of data being staged, especially if they are suspected of performing encryption or compression on the files.

Monitor processes and command-line arguments for actions that could be taken to collect and combine files. Remote access tools with built-in features may interact directly with the Windows API to gather and copy to a location. Data may also be acquired and staged through Windows system management tools such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process monitoring, Process command-line parameters

Table 73. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1074

New Service

When operating systems boot up, they can start programs or applications called services that perform background system functions.Masquerading. Services may be created with administrator privileges but are executed under SYSTEM privileges, so an adversary may also use a service to escalate privileges from administrator to SYSTEM. Adversaries may also directly start services through Service Execution.

Detection: Monitor service creation through changes in the Registry and common utilities using command-line invocation. New, benign services may be created during installation of new software. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities, such as network connections made for Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell, so additional logging may need to be configured to gather the appropriate data.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Windows Registry, Process monitoring, Process command-line parameters

Effective Permissions: SYSTEM

Table 74. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1050

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb963902

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc772408.aspx

Network Share Connection Removal

Windows shared drive and Windows Admin Shares connections can be removed when no longer needed. Net is an example utility that can be used to remove network share connections with the <code>net use \\system\share /delete</code> command.Windows Admin Shares. SMB traffic between systems may also be captured and decoded to look for related network share session and file transfer activity. Windows authentication logs are also useful in determining when authenticated network shares are established and by which account, and can be used to correlate network share activity to other events to investigate potentially malicious activity.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Process monitoring, Process command-line parameters, Packet capture, Authentication logs

Table 75. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1126

https://technet.microsoft.com/bb490717.aspx

DLL Injection

DLL injection is used to run code in the context of another process by causing the other process to load and execute code. Running code in the context of another process provides adversaries many benefits, such as access to the process’s memory and permissions. It also allows adversaries to mask their actions under a legitimate process. A more sophisticated kind of DLL injection, reflective DLL injection, loads code without calling the normal Windows API calls, potentially bypassing DLL load monitoring. Numerous methods of DLL injection exist on Windows, including modifying the Registry, creating remote threads, Windows hooking APIs, and DLL pre-loading.PowerShell with tools such as PowerSploit,[[Citation: Powersploit]] so additional PowerShell monitoring may be required to cover known implementations of this behavior.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: API monitoring, Windows Registry, File monitoring, Process monitoring

Effective Permissions: User, Administrator, SYSTEM

Table 76. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1055

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DLL%20injection

http://www.codeproject.com/Articles/4610/Three-Ways-to-Inject-Your-Code-into-Another-Proces

https://github.com/mattifestation/PowerSploit

Authentication Package

Windows Authentication Package DLLs are loaded by the Local Security Authority (LSA) process at system start. They provide support for multiple logon processes and multiple security protocols to the operating system.[[Citation: MSDN Authentication Packages]]

Adversaries can use the autostart mechanism provided by LSA Authentication Packages for persistence by placing a reference to a binary in the Windows Registry location <code>HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\</code> with the key value of <code>"Authentication Packages"=<target binary></code>. The binary will then be executed by the system when the authentication packages are loaded.

Detection: Monitor the Registry for changes to the LSA Registry keys. Monitor the LSA process for DLL loads. Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2 may generate events when unsigned DLLs try to load into the LSA by setting the Registry key <code>HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Image File Execution Options\LSASS.exe</code> with AuditLevel = 8.[[Citation: Graeber 2014]][[Citation: Microsoft Configure LSA]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: DLL monitoring, Windows Registry, Loaded DLLs

Table 77. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1131

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dn408187.aspx

https://msdn.microsoft.com/library/windows/desktop/aa374733.aspx

http://docplayer.net/20839173-Analysis-of-malicious-security-support-provider-dlls.html

Multilayer Encryption

An adversary performs C2 communications using multiple layers of encryption, typically (but not exclusively) tunneling a custom encryption scheme within a protocol encryption scheme such as HTTPS or SMTPS.

Detection: If malware uses Standard Cryptographic Protocol, SSL/TLS inspection can be used to detect command and control traffic within some encrypted communication channels.Custom Cryptographic Protocol, if malware uses encryption with symmetric keys, it may be possible to obtain the algorithm and key from samples and use them to decode network traffic to detect malware communications signatures.[[Citation: Fidelis DarkComet]]

In general, analyze network data for uncommon data flows (e.g., a client sending significantly more data than it receives from a server). Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Analyze packet contents to detect communications that do not follow the expected protocol behavior for the port that is being used.[[Citation: University of Birmingham C2]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Packet capture, Process use of network, Malware reverse engineering, Process monitoring

Table 78. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1079

https://www.fidelissecurity.com/sites/default/files/FTA%201018%20looking%20at%20the%20sky%20for%20a%20dark%20comet.pdf

https://insights.sei.cmu.edu/cert/2015/03/the-risks-of-ssl-inspection.html

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1408/1408.1136.pdf

http://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/analyst/finding-hidden-threats-decrypting-ssl-34840

Component Firmware

Some adversaries may employ sophisticated means to compromise computer components and install malicious firmware that will execute adversary code outside of the operating system and main system firmware or BIOS. This technique may be similar to Basic Input/Output System but conducted upon other system components that may not have the same capability or level of integrity checking. Malicious device firmware could provide both a persistent level of access to systems despite potential typical failures to maintain access and hard disk re-images, as well as a way to evade host software-based defenses and integrity checks.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Table 79. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1109

Windows Management Instrumentation Event Subscription

Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) can be used to install event filters, providers, consumers, and bindings that execute code when a defined event occurs. Adversaries may use the capabilities of WMI to subscribe to an event and execute arbitrary code when that event occurs, providing persistence on a system. Adversaries may attempt to evade detection of this technique by compiling WMI scripts.[[Citation: Dell WMI Persistence]] Examples of events that may be subscribed to are the wall clock time or the computer’s uptime.[[Citation: Kazanciyan 2014]] Several threat groups have reportedly used this technique to maintain persistence.[[Citation: Mandiant M-Trends 2015]]

Detection: Monitor WMI event subscription entries, comparing current WMI event subscriptions to known good subscriptions for each host. Tools such as Sysinternals Autoruns may also be used to detect WMI changes that could be attempts at persistence.[[Citation: TechNet Autoruns]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: WMI Objects

Table 80. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1084

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb963902

https://www.secureworks.com/blog/wmi-persistence

https://www.defcon.org/images/defcon-22/dc-22-presentations/Kazanciyan-Hastings/DEFCON-22-Ryan-Kazanciyan-Matt-Hastings-Investigating-Powershell-Attacks.pdf

https://www2.fireeye.com/rs/fireye/images/rpt-m-trends-2015.pdf

Disabling Security Tools

Adversaries may disable security tools to avoid possible detection of their tools and activities. This can take the form of killing security software or event logging processes, deleting Registry keys so that tools do not start at run time, or other methods to interfere with security scanning or event reporting.

Detection: Monitor processes and command-line arguments to see if security tools are killed or stop running. Monitor Registry edits for modifications to services and startup programs that correspond to security tools. Lack of log or event file reporting may be suspicious.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: API monitoring, Anti-virus, File monitoring, Services, Windows Registry, Process command-line parameters

Table 81. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1089

Peripheral Device Discovery

Adversaries may attempt to gather information about attached peripheral devices and components connected to a computer system. The information may be used to enhance their awareness of the system and network environment or may be used for further actions.

Detection: System and network discovery techniques normally occur throughout an operation as an adversary learns the environment. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities based on the information obtained.

Monitor processes and command-line arguments for actions that could be taken to gather system and network information. Remote access tools with built-in features may interact directly with the Windows API to gather information. Information may also be acquired through Windows system management tools such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Table 82. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1120

Data Compressed

An adversary may compress data (e.g., sensitive documents) that is collected prior to exfiltration in order to make it portable and minimize the amount of data sent over the network. The compression is done separately from the exfiltration channel and is performed using a custom program or algorithm, or a more common compression library or utility such as 7zip, RAR, ZIP, or zlib.

Detection: Compression software and compressed files can be detected in many ways. Common utilities that may be present on the system or brought in by an adversary may be detectable through process monitoring and monitoring for command-line arguments for known compression utilities. This may yield a significant amount of benign events, depending on how systems in the environment are typically used.

If the communications channel is unencrypted, compressed files can be detected in transit during exfiltration with a network intrusion detection or data loss prevention system analyzing file headers.[[Citation: Wikipedia File Header Signatures]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Binary file metadata, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 83. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1002

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List%20of%20file%20signatures

Account Discovery

Adversaries may attempt to get a listing of local system or domain accounts. Example commands that can acquire this information are <code>net user</code>, <code>net group <groupname></code>, and <code>net localgroup <groupname></code> using the Net utility or through use of dsquery. If adversaries attempt to identify the primary user, currently logged in user, or set of users that commonly uses a system, System Owner/User Discovery may apply.

Detection: System and network discovery techniques normally occur throughout an operation as an adversary learns the environment. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities, such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: API monitoring, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 84. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1087

Pass the Hash

Pass the hash (PtH)[[Citation: Aorato PTH]] is a method of authenticating as a user without having access to the user’s cleartext password. This method bypasses standard authentication steps that require a cleartext password, moving directly into the portion of the authentication that uses the password hash. In this technique, valid password hashes for the account being used are captured using a [[Credential Access]] technique. Captured hashes are used with PtH to authenticate as that user. Once authenticated, PtH may be used to perform actions on local or remote systems.

Windows 7 and higher with KB2871997 require valid domain user credentials or RID 500 administrator hashes.[[Citation: NSA Spotting]]

Detection: Audit all logon and credential use events and review for discrepancies. Unusual remote logins that correlate with other suspicious activity (such as writing and executing binaries) may indicate malicious activity. NTLM LogonType 3 authentications that are not associated to a domain login and are not anonymous logins are suspicious.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Authentication logs

Table 85. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1075

http://www.nsa.gov/ia/%20files/app/spotting%20the%20adversary%20with%20windows%20event%20log%20monitoring.pdf

http://www.aorato.com/labs/pass-the-hash/

Timestomp

Timestomping is a technique that modifies the timestamps of a file (the modify, access, create, and change times), often to mimic files that are in the same folder. This is done, for example, on files that have been modified or created by the adversary so that they do not appear conspicuous to forensic investigators or file analysis tools. Timestomping may be used along with file name Masquerading to hide malware and tools.[[Citation: WindowsIR Anti-Forensic Techniques]]

Detection: Forensic techniques exist to detect aspects of files that have had their timestamps modified.[[Citation: WindowsIR Anti-Forensic Techniques]] It may be possible to detect timestomping using file modification monitoring that collects information on file handle opens and can compare timestamp values.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1, Linux

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process monitoring, Process command-line parameters

Table 86. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1099

http://windowsir.blogspot.com/2013/07/howto-determinedetect-use-of-anti.html

Brute Force

Adversaries may use brute force techniques to attempt access to accounts when passwords are unknown or when password hashes are obtained.

Credential Dumping to obtain password hashes may only get an adversary so far when Pass the Hash is not an option. Techniques to systematically guess the passwords used to compute hashes are available, or the adversary may use a pre-computed rainbow table. Cracking hashes is usually done on adversary-controlled systems outside of the target network.Legitimate Credentials. If authentication failures are high, then there may be a brute force attempt to gain access to a system using legitimate credentials.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Authentication logs

Table 87. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1110

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Password%20cracking

http://www.cylance.com/assets/Cleaver/Cylance%20Operation%20Cleaver%20Report.pdf

Modify Registry

Adversaries may interact with the Windows Registry to hide configuration information within Registry keys, remove information as part of cleaning up, or as part of other techniques to aid in Reg may be used for local or remote Registry modification.Legitimate Credentials are required, along with access to the remote system’s Windows Admin Shares for RPC communication.

Detection: Modifications to the Registry are normal and occur throughout typical use of the Windows operating system. Changes to Registry entries that load software on Windows startup that do not correlate with known software, patch cycles, etc., are suspicious, as are additions or changes to files within the startup folder. Changes could also include new services and modification of existing binary paths to point to malicious files. If a change to a service-related entry occurs, then it will likely be followed by a local or remote service start or restart to execute the file.

Monitor processes and command-line arguments for actions that could be taken to change or delete information in the Registry. Remote access tools with built-in features may interact directly with the Windows API to gather information. Information may also be acquired through Windows system management tools such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell, which may require additional logging features to be configured in the operating system to collect necessary information for analysis.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Windows Registry, File monitoring, Process monitoring, Process command-line parameters

Table 88. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1112

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc732643.aspx

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc754820.aspx

Screen Capture

Adversaries may attempt to take screen captures of the desktop to gather information over the course of an operation. Screen capturing functionality may be included as a feature of a remote access tool used in post-compromise operations.

Detection: Monitoring for screen capture behavior will depend on the method used to obtain data from the operating system and write output files. Detection methods could include collecting information from unusual processes using API calls used to obtain image data, and monitoring for image files written to disk. The sensor data may need to be correlated with other events to identify malicious activity, depending on the legitimacy of this behavior within a given network environment.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: API monitoring, Process monitoring, File monitoring

Table 89. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1113

Indicator Removal from Tools

If a malicious tool is detected and quarantined or otherwise curtailed, an adversary may be able to determine why the malicious tool was detected (the indicator), modify the tool by removing the indicator, and use the updated version that is no longer detected by the target’s defensive systems or subsequent targets that may use similar systems.

A good example of this is when malware is detected with a file signature and quarantined by anti-virus software. An adversary who can determine that the malware was quarantined because of its file signature may use Software Packing or otherwise modify the file so it has a different signature, and then re-use the malware.

Detection: The first detection of a malicious tool may trigger an anti-virus or other security tool alert. Similar events may also occur at the boundary through network IDS, email scanning appliance, etc. The initial detection should be treated as an indication of a potentially more invasive intrusion. The alerting system should be thoroughly investigated beyond that initial alert for activity that was not detected. Adversaries may continue with an operation, assuming that individual events like an anti-virus detect will not be investigated or that an analyst will not be able to conclusively link that event to other activity occurring on the network.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Process use of network, Anti-virus, Binary file metadata, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 90. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1066

Change Default File Association

When a file is opened, the default program used to open the file (also called the file association or handler) is checked. File association selections are stored in the Windows Registry and can be edited by users, administrators, or programs that have Registry access.[[Citation: Microsoft Change Default Programs]][[Citation: Microsoft File Handlers]] Applications can modify the file association for a given file extension to call an arbitrary program when a file with the given extension is opened.

Detection: Collect and analyze changes to Registry keys that associate file extensions to default applications for execution and correlate with unknown process launch activity or unusual file types for that process.

User file association preferences are stored under <code> [HKEY_CURRENT_USER]\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\FileExts</code> and override associations configured under <code>[HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT]</code>. Changes to a user’s preference will occur under this entry’s subkeys.

Also look for abnormal process call trees for execution of other commands that could relate to actions or other techniques.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Windows Registry, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Contributors: Stefan Kanthak

Table 91. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1042

https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/18539/windows-7-change-default-programs

http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb166549.aspx

Email Collection

Adversaries may target user email to collect sensitive information from a target.

Files containing email data can be acquired from a user’s system, such as Outlook storage or cache files .pst and .ost.

Adversaries may leverage a user’s credentials and interact directly with the Exchange server to acquire information from within a network.

Some adversaries may acquire user credentials and access externally facing webmail applications, such as Outlook Web Access.

Detection: There are likely a variety of ways an adversary could collect email from a target, each with a different mechanism for detection.

File access of local system email files for Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Authentication logs, File monitoring, Process monitoring, Process use of network

Table 92. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1114

System Information Discovery

An adversary may attempt to get detailed information about the operating system and hardware, including version, patches, hotfixes, service packs, and architecture. Example commands and utilities that obtain this information include <code>ver</code>, Systeminfo, and <code>dir</code> within cmd for identifying information based on present files and directories.

Detection: System and network discovery techniques normally occur throughout an operation as an adversary learns the environment. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities based on the information obtained.

Monitor processes and command-line arguments for actions that could be taken to gather system and network information. Remote access tools with built-in features may interact directly with the Windows API to gather information. Information may also be acquired through Windows system management tools such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1, Linux

Data Sources: Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 93. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1082

Local Network Connections Discovery

Adversaries may attempt to get a listing of network connections to or from the compromised system. Utilities and commands that acquire this information include netstat, "net use," and "net session" with Net.

Detection: System and network discovery techniques normally occur throughout an operation as an adversary learns the environment. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities, such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 94. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1049

Two-Factor Authentication Interception

Use of two- or multifactor authentication is recommended and provides a higher level of security than user names and passwords alone, but organizations should be aware of techniques that could be used to intercept and bypass these security mechanisms. Adversaries may target authentication mechanisms, such as smart cards, to gain access to systems, services, and network resources.

If a smart card is used for two-factor authentication (2FA), then a keylogger will need to be used to obtain the password associated with a smart card during normal use. With both an inserted card and access to the smart card password, an adversary can connect to a network resource using the infected system to proxy the authentication with the inserted hardware token.[[Citation: Mandiant M Trends 2011]]

Other methods of 2FA may be intercepted and used by an adversary to authenticate. It is common for one-time codes to be sent via out-of-band communications (email, SMS). If the device and/or service is not secured, then it may be vulnerable to interception. Although primarily focused on by cyber criminals, these authentication mechanisms have been targeted by advanced actors.[[Citation: Operation Emmental]]

Other hardware tokens, such as RSA SecurID, require the adversary to have access to the physical device or the seed and algorithm in addition to the corresponding credentials.

Detection: Detecting use of proxied smart card connections by an adversary may be difficult because it requires the token to be inserted into a system; thus it is more likely to be in use by a legitimate user and blend in with other network behavior.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Contributors: John Lambert, Microsoft Threat Intelligence Center

Table 95. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1111

https://dl.mandiant.com/EE/assets/PDF%20MTrends%202011.pdf

http://www.trendmicro.com/cloud-content/us/pdfs/security-intelligence/white-papers/wp-finding-holes-operation-emmental.pdf

Execution through API

Adversary tools may directly use the Windows application programming interface (API) to execute binaries. Functions such as the Windows API CreateProcess will allow programs and scripts to start other processes with proper path and argument parameters.[[Citation: Microsoft CreateProcess]]

Additional Windows API calls that can be used to execute binaries include:[[Citation: Kanthak Verifier]]

*CreateProcessA() and CreateProcessW(), *CreateProcessAsUserA() and CreateProcessAsUserW(), *CreateProcessInternalA() and CreateProcessInternalW(), *CreateProcessWithLogonW(), CreateProcessWithTokenW(), *LoadLibraryA() and LoadLibraryW(), *LoadLibraryExA() and LoadLibraryExW(), *LoadModule(), *LoadPackagedLibrary(), *WinExec(), *ShellExecuteA() and ShellExecuteW(), *ShellExecuteExA() and ShellExecuteExW()

Detection: Monitoring API calls may generate a significant amount of data and may not be directly useful for defense unless collected under specific circumstances, since benign use of Windows API functions such as CreateProcess are common and difficult to distinguish from malicious behavior. Correlation of other events with behavior surrounding API function calls using API monitoring will provide additional context to an event that may assist in determining if it is due to malicious behavior. Correlation of activity by process lineage by process ID may be sufficient.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: API monitoring, Process monitoring

Contributors: Stefan Kanthak

Table 96. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1106

http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms682425

https://skanthak.homepage.t-online.de/verifier.html

Component Object Model Hijacking

The Microsoft Component Object Model (COM) is a system within Windows to enable interaction between software components through the operating system.[[Citation: Microsoft Component Object Model]] Adversaries can use this system to insert malicious code that can be executed in place of legitimate software through hijacking the COM references and relationships as a means for persistence. Hijacking a COM object requires a change in the Windows Registry to replace a reference to a legitimate system component which may cause that component to not work when executed. When that system component is executed through normal system operation the adversary’s code will be executed instead.[[Citation: GDATA COM Hijacking]] An adversary is likely to hijack objects that are used frequently enough to maintain a consistent level of persistence, but are unlikely to break noticeable functionality within the system as to avoid system instability that could lead to detection.

Detection: There are opportunities to detect COM hijacking by searching for Registry references that have been replaced and through Registry operations replacing know binary paths with unknown paths. Even though some third party applications define user COM objects, the presence of objects within <code>HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Classes\CLSID\</code> may be anomalous and should be investigated since user objects will be loaded prior to machine objects in <code>HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Classes\CLSID\</code>.[[Citation: Endgame COM Hijacking]] Registry entries for existing COM objects may change infrequently. When an entry with a known good path and binary is replaced or changed to an unusual value to point to an unknown binary in a new location, then it may indicate suspicious behavior and should be investigated. Likewise, if software DLL loads are collected and analyzed, any unusual DLL load that can be correlated with a COM object Registry modification may indicate COM hijacking has been performed.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Windows Registry, DLL monitoring, Loaded DLLs

Contributors: ENDGAME

Table 97. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1122

https://msdn.microsoft.com/library/ms694363.aspx

https://www.endgame.com/blog/how-hunt-detecting-persistence-evasion-com

https://blog.gdatasoftware.com/2014/10/23941-com-object-hijacking-the-discreet-way-of-persistence

Clipboard Data

Adversaries may collect data stored in the Windows clipboard from users copying information within or between applications.

Applications can access clipboard data by using the Windows API.[[Citation: MSDN Clipboard]]

Detection: Access to the clipboard is a legitimate function of many applications on a Windows system. If an organization chooses to monitor for this behavior, then the data will likely need to be correlated against other suspicious or non-user-driven activity.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: API monitoring

Table 98. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1115

https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms649012

InstallUtil

InstallUtil is a command-line utility that allows for installation and uninstallation of resources by executing specific installer components specified in .NET binaries.[[Citation: MSDN InstallUtil]] InstallUtil is located in the .NET directory on a Windows system: <code>C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v<version>\InstallUtil.exe</code>.InstallUtil.exe is digitally signed by Microsoft.

Adversaries may use InstallUtil to proxy execution of code through a trusted Windows utility. InstallUtil may also be used to bypass process whitelisting through use of attributes within the binary that execute the class decorated with the attribute <code>[System.ComponentModel.RunInstaller(true)]</code>.[[Citation: SubTee InstallUtil Whitelist Bypass]]

Detection: Use process monitoring to monitor the execution and arguments of InstallUtil.exe. Compare recent invocations of InstallUtil.exe with prior history of known good arguments and executed binaries to determine anomalous and potentially adversarial activity. Command arguments used before and after the InstallUtil.exe invocation may also be useful in determining the origin and purpose of the binary being executed.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Process monitoring, Process command-line parameters

Contributors: Casey Smith

Table 99. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1118

https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/50614e95.aspx

http://subt0x10.blogspot.com/2015/08/application-whitelisting-bypasses-101.html

Data Obfuscation

Command and control (C2) communications are hidden (but not necessarily encrypted) in an attempt to make the content more difficult to discover or decipher and to make the communication less conspicuous and hide commands from being seen. This encompasses many methods, such as adding junk data to protocol traffic, using steganography, commingling legitimate traffic with C2 communications traffic, or using a non-standard data encoding system, such as a modified Base64 encoding for the message body of an HTTP request.

Detection: Analyze network data for uncommon data flows (e.g., a client sending significantly more data than it receives from a server). Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Analyze packet contents to detect communications that do not follow the expected protocol behavior for the port that is being used.[[Citation: University of Birmingham C2]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Packet capture, Process use of network, Process monitoring, Network protocol analysis

Table 100. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1001

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1408/1408.1136.pdf

Shortcut Modification

Shortcuts or symbolic links are ways of referencing other files or programs that will be opened or executed when the shortcut is clicked or executed by a system startup process. Adversaries could use shortcuts to execute their tools for persistence. They may create a new shortcut as a means of indirection that may use Masquerading to look like a legitimate program. Adversaries could also edit the target path or entirely replace an existing shortcut so their tools will be executed instead of the intended legitimate program.

Detection: Since a shortcut’s target path likely will not change, modifications to shortcut files that do not correlate with known software changes, patches, removal, etc., may be suspicious. Analysis should attempt to relate shortcut file change or creation events to other potentially suspicious events based on known adversary behavior such as process launches of unknown executables that make network connections.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 101. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1023

Obfuscated Files or Information

Adversaries may attempt to make an executable or file difficult to discover or analyze by encrypting, encoding, or otherwise obfuscating its contents on the system.

Detection: Detection of file obfuscation is difficult unless artifacts are left behind by the obfuscation process that are uniquely detectable with a signature. If detection of the obfuscation itself is not possible, it may be possible to detect the malicious activity that caused the obfuscated file (for example, the method that was used to write, read, or modify the file on the file system).

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Network protocol analysis, Process use of network, Binary file metadata, File monitoring, Malware reverse engineering

Table 102. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1027

Video Capture

An adversary can leverage a computer’s peripheral devices (e.g., integrated cameras or webcams) or applications (e.g., video call services) to capture video recordings for the purpose of gathering information. Images may also be captured from devices or applications, potentially in specified intervals, in lieu of video files.

Malware or scripts may be used to interact with the devices through an available API provided by the operating system or an application to capture video or images. Video or image files may be written to disk and exfiltrated later. This technique differs from Screen Capture due to use of specific devices or applications for video recording rather than capturing the victim’s screen.

Detection: Detection of this technique may be difficult due to the various APIs that may be used. Telemetry data regarding API use may not be useful depending on how a system is normally used, but may provide context to other potentially malicious activity occurring on a system.

Behavior that could indicate technique use include an unknown or unusual process accessing APIs associated with devices or software that interact with the video camera, recording devices, or recording software, and a process periodically writing files to disk that contain video or camera image data.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Process monitoring, File monitoring, API monitoring

Table 103. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1125

Masquerading

Masquerading occurs when an executable, legitimate or malicious, is placed in a commonly trusted location (such as C:\Windows\System32) or named with a common name (such as "explorer.exe" or "svchost.exe") to bypass tools that trust executables by relying on file name or path. An adversary may even use a renamed copy of a legitimate utility, such as rundll32.exe.[[Citation: Endgame Masquerade Ball]] Masquerading also may be done to deceive defenders and system administrators into thinking a file is benign by associating the name with something that is thought to be legitimate.

Detection: Collect file hashes; file names that do not match their expected hash are suspect. Perform file monitoring; files with known names but in unusual locations are suspect. Likewise, files that are modified outside of an update or patch are suspect.

If file names are mismatched between the binary name on disk and the binary’s resource section, this is a likely indicator that a binary was renamed after it was compiled. Collecting and comparing disk and resource filenames for binaries could provide useful leads, but may not always be indicative of malicious activity.[[Citation: Endgame Masquerade Ball]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process monitoring, Binary file metadata

Contributors: ENDGAME

Table 104. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1036

https://www.endgame.com/blog/how-hunt-masquerade-ball

DLL Side-Loading

Programs may specify DLLs that are loaded at runtime. Programs that improperly or vaguely specify a required DLL may be open to a vulnerability in which an unintended DLL is loaded. Side-loading vulnerabilities specifically occur when Windows Side-by-Side (WinSxS) manifests[[Citation: MSDN Manifests]] are not explicit enough about characteristics of the DLL to be loaded. Adversaries may take advantage of a legitimate program that is vulnerable to side-loading to load a malicious DLL.[[Citation: Stewart 2014]]

Adversaries likely use this technique as a means of masking actions they perform under a legitimate, trusted system or software process.

Detection: Monitor processes for unusual activity (e.g., a process that does not use the network begins to do so). Track DLL metadata, such as a hash, and compare DLLs that are loaded at process execution time against previous executions to detect differences that do not correlate with patching or updates.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Process use of network, Process monitoring, Loaded DLLs

Table 105. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1073

https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa375365

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/global/en/current-threats/pdfs/rpt-dll-sideloading.pdf

Automated Exfiltration

Data, such as sensitive documents, may be exfiltrated through the use of automated processing or Scripting after being gathered during Exfiltration Over Command and Control Channel and Exfiltration Over Alternative Protocol.

Detection: Monitor process file access patterns and network behavior. Unrecognized processes or scripts that appear to be traversing file systems and sending network traffic may be suspicious.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process monitoring, Process use of network

Table 106. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1020

Network Service Scanning

Adversaries may attempt to get a listing of services running on remote hosts, including those that may be vulnerable to remote software exploitation. Methods to acquire this information include port scans and vulnerability scans using tools that are brought onto a system.

Detection: System and network discovery techniques normally occur throughout an operation as an adversary learns the environment. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities, such as [[Lateral Movement]], based on the information obtained.

Normal, benign system and network events from legitimate remote service scanning may be uncommon, depending on the environment and how they are used. Legitimate open port and vulnerability scanning may be conducted within the environment and will need to be deconflicted with any detection capabilities developed. Network intrusion detection systems can also be used to identify scanning activity. Monitor for process use of the networks and inspect intra-network flows to detect port scans.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Netflow/Enclave netflow, Network protocol analysis, Packet capture, Process command-line parameters, Process use of network

Table 107. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1046

Replication Through Removable Media

Adversaries may move to additional systems, possibly those on disconnected or air-gapped networks, by copying malware to removable media and taking advantage of Autorun features when the media is inserted into another system and executes. This may occur through modification of executable files stored on removable media or by copying malware and renaming it to look like a legitimate file to trick users into executing it on a separate system.

Detection: Monitor file access on removable media. Detect processes that execute from removable media after it is mounted or when initiated by a user. If a remote access tool is used in this manner to move laterally, then additional actions are likely to occur after execution, such as opening network connections for [[Command and Control]] and system and network information .

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Data loss prevention

Table 108. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1091

Remote Desktop Protocol

Remote desktop is a common feature in operating systems. It allows a user to log into an interactive session with a system desktop graphical user interface on a remote system. Microsoft refers to its implementation of the Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) as Remote Desktop Services (RDS).Remote Services similar to RDS.

Adversaries may connect to a remote system over RDP/RDS to expand access if the service is enabled and allows access to accounts with known credentials. Adversaries will likely use Accessibility Features technique for .[[Citation: Alperovitch Malware]]

Detection: Use of RDP may be legitimate, depending on the network environment and how it is used. Other factors, such as access patterns and activity that occurs after a remote login, may indicate suspicious or malicious behavior with RDP. Monitor for user accounts logged into systems they would not normally access or access patterns to multiple systems over a relatively short period of time.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Authentication logs, Netflow/Enclave netflow, Process monitoring

Table 109. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1076

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/windowsserver/ee236407.aspx

http://blog.crowdstrike.com/adversary-tricks-crowdstrike-treats/

Scheduled Transfer

Data exfiltration may be performed only at certain times of day or at certain intervals. This could be done to blend traffic patterns with normal activity or availability.

When scheduled exfiltration is used, other exfiltration techniques likely apply as well to transfer the information out of the network, such as Exfiltration Over Command and Control Channel and Exfiltration Over Alternative Protocol.

Detection: Monitor process file access patterns and network behavior. Unrecognized processes or scripts that appear to be traversing file systems and sending network traffic may be suspicious. Network connections to the same destination that occur at the same time of day for multiple days are suspicious.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Netflow/Enclave netflow, Process use of network, Process monitoring

Table 110. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1029

Bypass User Account Control

Windows User Account Control (UAC) allows a program to elevate its privileges to perform a task under administrator-level permissions by prompting the user for confirmation. The impact to the user ranges from denying the operation under high enforcement to allowing the user to perform the action if they are in the local administrators group and click through the prompt or allowing them to enter an administrator password to complete the action.DLL Injection and unusual loaded DLLs through DLL Search Order Hijacking, which indicate attempts to gain access to higher privileged processes.

Platforms: Windows Server 2012, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: System calls, Process monitoring, Authentication logs, Process command-line parameters

Effective Permissions: Administrator

Contributors: Stefan Kanthak, Casey Smith

Table 111. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1088

http://www.pretentiousname.com/misc/win7%20uac%20whitelist2.html

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/itpro/windows/keep-secure/how-user-account-control-works

https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms679687.aspx

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-US/magazine/2009.07.uac.aspx

https://enigma0x3.net/2016/08/15/fileless-uac-bypass-using-eventvwr-exe-and-registry-hijacking/

http://pen-testing.sans.org/blog/pen-testing/2013/08/08/psexec-uac-bypass

https://github.com/hfiref0x/UACME

https://blog.fortinet.com/2016/12/16/malicious-macro-bypasses-uac-to-elevate-privilege-for-fareit-malware

Logon Scripts

Windows allows logon scripts to be run whenever a specific user or group of users log into a system.[[Citation: TechNet Logon Scripts]] The scripts can be used to perform administrative functions, which may often execute other programs or send information to an internal logging server.

If adversaries can access these scripts, they may insert additional code into the logon script to execute their tools when a user logs in. This code can allow them to maintain persistence on a single system, if it is a local script, or to move laterally within a network, if the script is stored on a central server and pushed to many systems. Depending on the access configuration of the logon scripts, either local credentials or an administrator account may be necessary.

Detection: Monitor logon scripts for unusual access by abnormal users or at abnormal times. Look for files added or modified by unusual accounts outside of normal administration duties.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process monitoring

Table 112. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1037

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc758918(v=ws.10).aspx

Connection Proxy

A connection proxy is used to direct network traffic between systems or act as an intermediary for network communications. Many tools exist that enable traffic redirection through proxies or port redirection, including HTRAN, ZXProxy, and ZXPortMap.[[Citation: Trend Micro APT Attack Tools]]

The definition of a proxy can also be expanded out to encompass trust relationships between networks in peer-to-peer, mesh, or trusted connections between networks consisting of hosts or systems that regularly communicate with each other.

The network may be within a single organization or across organizations with trust relationships. Adversaries could use these types of relationships to manage command and control communications, to reduce the number of simultaneous outbound network connections, to provide resiliency in the face of connection loss, or to ride over existing trusted communications paths between victims to avoid suspicion.

Detection: Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Network activities disassociated from user-driven actions from processes that normally require user direction are suspicious.

Analyze network data for uncommon data flows (e.g., a client sending significantly more data than it receives from a server or between clients that should not or often do not communicate with one another). Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Analyze packet contents to detect communications that do not follow the expected protocol behavior for the port that is being used.[[Citation: University of Birmingham C2]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Process use of network, Process monitoring, Netflow/Enclave netflow, Packet capture

Contributors: Walker Johnson

Table 113. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1090

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1408/1408.1136.pdf

http://blog.trendmicro.com/trendlabs-security-intelligence/in-depth-look-apt-attack-tools-of-the-trade/

Regsvr32

Regsvr32.exe is a command-line program used to register and unregister object linking and embedding controls, including dynamic link libraries (DLLs), on Windows systems. Regsvr32.exe can be used to execute arbitrary binaries.[[Citation: Microsoft Regsvr32]]

Adversaries may take advantage of this functionality to proxy execution of code to avoid triggering security tools that may not monitor execution of, and modules loaded by, the regsvr32.exe process because of whitelists or false positives from Windows using regsvr32.exe for normal operations. Regsvr32.exe is also a Microsoft signed binary.

Regsvr32.exe can also be used to specifically bypass process whitelisting using functionality to load COM scriptlets to execute DLLs under user permissions. Since regsvr32.exe is network and proxy aware, the scripts can be loaded by passing a uniform resource locator (URL) to file on an external Web server as an argument during invocation. This method makes no changes to the Registry as the COM object is not actually registered, only executed.[[Citation: SubTee Regsvr32 Whitelisting Bypass]] This variation of the technique has been used in campaigns targeting governments.[[Citation: FireEye Regsvr32 Targeting Mongolian Gov]]

Detection: Use process monitoring to monitor the execution and arguments of regsvr32.exe. Compare recent invocations of regsvr32.exe with prior history of known good arguments and loaded files to determine anomalous and potentially adversarial activity. Command arguments used before and after the regsvr32.exe invocation may also be useful in determining the origin and purpose of the script or DLL being loaded.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Loaded DLLs, Process monitoring, Process command-line parameters, Windows Registry

Contributors: Casey Smith

Table 114. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1117

https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/249873

http://subt0x10.blogspot.com/2016/04/bypass-application-whitelisting-script.html

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2017/02/spear%20phishing%20techn.html

File and Directory Discovery

Adversaries may enumerate files and directories or may search in specific locations of a host or network share for certain information within a file system. Example utilities used to obtain this information are <code>dir</code> and <code>tree</code>.Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1, Linux

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 115. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1083

http://blog.jpcert.or.jp/2016/01/windows-commands-abused-by-attackers.html

Commonly Used Port

Adversaries may communicate over a commonly used port to bypass firewalls or network detection systems and to blend with normal network activity to avoid more detailed inspection. They may use commonly open ports such as * TCP:80 (HTTP) * TCP:443 (HTTPS) * TCP:25 (SMTP) * TCP/UDP:53 (DNS)

They may use the protocol associated with the port or a completely different protocol.

For connections that occur internally within an enclave (such as those between a proxy or pivot node and other nodes), examples of common ports are * TCP/UDP:135 (RPC) * TCP/UDP:22 (SSH) * TCP/UDP:3389 (RDP)

Detection: Analyze network data for uncommon data flows (e.g., a client sending significantly more data than it receives from a server). Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Analyze packet contents to detect communications that do not follow the expected protocol behavior for the port that is being used.[[Citation: University of Birmingham C2]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1, Linux

Data Sources: Packet capture, Netflow/Enclave netflow, Process use of network, Process monitoring

Table 116. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1043

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1408/1408.1136.pdf

Data Encoding

Command and control (C2) information is encoded using a standard data encoding system. Use of data encoding may be to adhere to existing protocol specifications and includes use of ASCII, Unicode, Base64, MIME, UTF-8, or other binary-to-text and character encoding systems.[[Citation: Wikipedia Binary-to-text Encoding]][[Citation: Wikipedia Character Encoding]] Some data encoding systems may also result in data compression, such as gzip.

Detection: Analyze network data for uncommon data flows (e.g., a client sending significantly more data than it receives from a server). Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Analyze packet contents to detect communications that do not follow the expected protocol behavior for the port that is being used.[[Citation: University of Birmingham C2]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1, Linux

Data Sources: Packet capture, Process use of network, Process Monitoring, Network protocol analysis

Contributors: Itzik Kotler, SafeBreach

Table 117. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1132

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Character%20encoding

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary-to-text%20encoding

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1408/1408.1136.pdf

Credentials in Files

Adversaries may search local file systems and remote file shares for files containing passwords. These can be files created by users to store their own credentials, shared credential stores for a group of individuals, configuration files containing passwords for a system or service, or source code/binary files containing embedded passwords.

It is possible to extract passwords from backups or saved virtual machines through Credential Dumping.Legitimate Credentials for more information.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process command-line parameters

Table 118. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1081

http://blogs.technet.com/b/srd/archive/2014/05/13/ms14-025-an-update-for-group-policy-preferences.aspx

http://carnal0wnage.attackresearch.com/2014/05/mimikatz-against-virtual-machine-memory.html

PowerShell

PowerShell is a powerful interactive command-line interface and scripting environment included in the Windows operating system.[[Citation: TechNet PowerShell]] Adversaries can use PowerShell to perform a number of actions, including discovery of information and execution of code. Examples include the Start-Process cmdlet which can be used to run an executable and the Invoke-Command cmdlet which runs a command locally or on a remote computer.

PowerShell may also be used to download and run executables from the Internet, which can be executed from disk or in memory without touching disk.

Administrator permissions are required to use PowerShell to connect to remote systems.

A number of PowerShell-based offensive testing tools are available, including Empire,[[Citation: Github PowerShell Empire]] PowerSploit,[[Citation: Powersploit]] and PSAttack.[[Citation: Github PSAttack]]

Detection: If proper execution policy is set, adversaries will likely be able to define their own execution policy if they obtain administrator or system access, either through the Registry or at the command line. This change in policy on a system may be a way to detect malicious use of PowerShell. If PowerShell is not used in an environment, then simply looking for PowerShell execution may detect malicious activity.

It is also beneficial to turn on PowerShell logging to gain increased fidelity in what occurs during execution.[[Citation: Malware Archaeology PowerShell Cheat Sheet]] PowerShell 5.0 introduced enhanced logging capabilities, and some of those features have since been added to PowerShell 4.0. Earlier versions of PowerShell do not have many logging features.[[Citation: FireEye PowerShell Logging 2016]] An organization can gather PowerShell execution details in a data analytic platform to supplement it with other data.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Windows Registry, File monitoring, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 119. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1086

https://github.com/jaredhaight/PSAttack

https://github.com/PowerShellEmpire/Empire

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/scriptcenter/dd742419.aspx

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2016/02/greater%20visibilityt.html

http://www.malwarearchaeology.com/s/Windows-PowerShell-Logging-Cheat-Sheet-ver-June-2016-v2.pdf

https://github.com/mattifestation/PowerSploit

Security Software Discovery

Adversaries may attempt to get a listing of security software, configurations, defensive tools, and sensors that are installed on the system. This may include things such as local firewall rules, anti-virus, and virtualization. These checks may be built into early-stage remote access tools.

Example commands that can be used to obtain security software information are netsh, <code>reg query</code> with Reg, <code>dir</code> with cmd, and Tasklist, but other indicators of discovery behavior may be more specific to the type of software or security system the adversary is looking for.

Detection: System and network discovery techniques normally occur throughout an operation as an adversary learns the environment. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities, such as lateral movement, based on the information obtained.

Monitor processes and command-line arguments for actions that could be taken to gather system and network information. Remote access tools with built-in features may interact directly with the Windows API to gather information. Information may also be acquired through Windows system management tools such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 120. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1063

Modify Existing Service

Windows service configuration information, including the file path to the service’s executable, is stored in the Registry. Service configurations can be modified using utilities such as sc.exe and Reg.

Adversaries can modify an existing service to persist malware on a system by using system utilities or by using custom tools to interact with the Windows API. Use of existing services is a type of Masquerading that may make detection analysis more challenging. Modifying existing services may interrupt their functionality or may enable services that are disabled or otherwise not commonly used.

Detection: Look for changes to service Registry entries that do not correlate with known software, patch cycles, etc. Changes to the binary path and the service startup type changed from manual or disabled to automatic, if it does not typically do so, may be suspicious. Tools such as Sysinternals Autoruns may also be used to detect system service changes that could be attempts at persistence.cmd commands or scripts.

Look for abnormal process call trees from known services and for execution of other commands that could relate to Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell, so additional logging may need to be configured to gather the appropriate data.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Windows Registry, File monitoring, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 121. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1031

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb963902

Standard Cryptographic Protocol

Adversaries use command and control over an encrypted channel using a known encryption protocol like HTTPS or SSL/TLS. The use of strong encryption makes it difficult for defenders to detect signatures within adversary command and control traffic.

Some adversaries may use other encryption protocols and algorithms with symmetric keys, such as RC4, that rely on encryption keys encoded into malware configuration files and not public key cryptography. Such keys may be obtained through malware reverse engineering.

Detection: SSL/TLS inspection is one way of detecting command and control traffic within some encrypted communication channels.[[Citation: SANS Decrypting SSL]] SSL/TLS inspection does come with certain risks that should be considered before implementing to avoid potential security issues such as incomplete certificate validation.[[Citation: SEI SSL Inspection Risks]]

If malware uses encryption with symmetric keys, it may be possible to obtain the algorithm and key from samples and use them to decode network traffic to detect malware communications signatures.[[Citation: Fidelis DarkComet]]

In general, analyze network data for uncommon data flows (e.g., a client sending significantly more data than it receives from a server). Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Analyze packet contents to detect communications that do not follow the expected protocol behavior for the port that is being used.[[Citation: University of Birmingham C2]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Packet capture, Netflow/Enclave netflow, Malware reverse engineering, Process use of network, Process monitoring, SSL/TLS inspection

Table 122. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1032

https://www.fidelissecurity.com/sites/default/files/FTA%201018%20looking%20at%20the%20sky%20for%20a%20dark%20comet.pdf

https://insights.sei.cmu.edu/cert/2015/03/the-risks-of-ssl-inspection.html

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1408/1408.1136.pdf

http://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/analyst/finding-hidden-threats-decrypting-ssl-34840

Legitimate Credentials

Adversaries may steal the credentials of a specific user or service account using [[Credential Access]] techniques. Compromised credentials may be used to bypass access controls placed on various resources on hosts and within the network and may even be used for persistent access to remote systems. Compromised credentials may also grant an adversary increased privilege to specific systems or access to restricted areas of the network. Adversaries may choose not to use malware or tools in conjunction with the legitimate access those credentials provide to make it harder to detect their presence.

The overlap of credentials and permissions across a network of systems is of concern because the adversary may be able to pivot across accounts and systems to reach a high level of access (i.e., domain or enterprise administrator) to bypass access controls set within the enterprise.[[Citation: TechNet Credential Theft]]

Detection: Configure robust, consistent account activity audit policies across the enterprise.[[Citation: TechNet Audit Policy]] Look for suspicious account behavior across systems that share accounts, either user, admin, or service accounts. Examples: one account logged into multiple systems simultaneously; multiple accounts logged into the same machine simultaneously; accounts logged in at odd times or outside of business hours. Activity may be from interactive login sessions or process ownership from accounts being used to execute binaries on a remote system as a particular account. Correlate other security systems with login information (e.g., a user has an active login session but has not entered the building or does not have VPN access).

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Authentication logs, Process monitoring

Effective Permissions: User, Administrator

Table 123. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1078

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dn487457.aspx

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dn535501.aspx

System Service Discovery

Adversaries may try to get information about registered services. Commands that may obtain information about services using operating system utilities are "sc," "tasklist /svc" using Tasklist, and "net start" using Net, but adversaries may also use other tools as well.

Detection: System and network discovery techniques normally occur throughout an operation as an adversary learns the environment. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities, such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 124. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1007

System Owner/User Discovery

Adversaries may attempt to identify the primary user, currently logged in user, set of users that commonly uses a system, or whether a user is actively using the system. They may do this, for example, by retrieving account usernames or by using Credential Dumping. The information may be collected in a number of different ways using other Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1, Linux

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process monitoring, Process command-line parameters

Table 125. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1033

Multiband Communication

Some adversaries may split communications between different protocols. There could be one protocol for inbound command and control and another for outbound data, allowing it to bypass certain firewall restrictions. The split could also be random to simply avoid data threshold alerts on any one communication.

Detection: Analyze network data for uncommon data flows (e.g., a client sending significantly more data than it receives from a server). Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Analyze packet contents to detect communications that do not follow the expected protocol behavior for the port that is being used.[[Citation: University of Birmingham C2]] Correlating alerts between multiple communication channels can further help identify command-and-control behavior.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Packet capture, Netflow/Enclave netflow, Process use of network, Malware reverse engineering, Process monitoring

Table 126. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1026

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1408/1408.1136.pdf

Pass the Ticket

Pass the ticket (PtT)Legitimate Credentials are captured by Credential Dumping. A user’s service tickets or ticket granting ticket (TGT) may be obtained, depending on the level of access. A service ticket allows for access to a particular resource, whereas a TGT can be used to request service tickets from the Ticket Granting Service (TGS) to access any resource the user has privileges to access.[[Citation: ADSecurity AD Kerberos Attacks]][[Citation: GentilKiwi Pass the Ticket]]

Silver Tickets can be obtained for services that use Kerberos as an authentication mechanism and are used to generate tickets to access that particular resource and the system that hosts the resource (e.g., SharePoint).[[Citation: ADSecurity AD Kerberos Attacks]]

Golden Tickets can be obtained for the domain using the KRBTGT account NTLM hash, which enables generation of TGTs for any account in Active Directory.[[Citation: Campbell 2014]]

Detection: Audit all Kerberos authentication and credential use events and review for discrepancies. Unusual remote authentication events that correlate with other suspicious activity (such as writing and executing binaries) may indicate malicious activity.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Authentication logs

Table 127. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1097

http://www.aorato.com/labs/pass-the-ticket/

https://adsecurity.org/?p=556

http://defcon.org/images/defcon-22/dc-22-presentations/Campbell/DEFCON-22-Christopher-Campbell-The-Secret-Life-of-Krbtgt.pdf

http://blog.gentilkiwi.com/securite/mimikatz/pass-the-ticket-kerberos

Windows Remote Management

Windows Remote Management (WinRM) is the name of both a Windows service and a protocol that allows a user to interact with a remote system (e.g., run an executable, modify the Registry, modify services).[[Citation: Microsoft WinRM]] It may be called with the <code>winrm</code> command or by any number of programs such as PowerShell.[[Citation: Jacobsen 2014]]

Detection: Monitor use of WinRM within an environment by tracking service execution. If it is not normally used or is disabled, then this may be an indicator of suspicious behavior. Monitor processes created and actions taken by the WinRM process or a WinRM invoked script to correlate it with other related events.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Authentication logs, Netflow/Enclave netflow, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 128. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1028

http://www.slideee.com/slide/lateral-movement-with-powershell

http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa384426

Audio Capture

An adversary can leverage a computer’s peripheral devices (e.g., microphones and webcams) or applications (e.g., voice and video call services) to capture audio recordings for the purpose of listening into sensitive conversations to gather information.

Malware or scripts may be used to interact with the devices through an available API provided by the operating system or an application to capture audio. Audio files may be written to disk and exfiltrated later.

Detection: Detection of this technique may be difficult due to the various APIs that may be used. Telemetry data regarding API use may not be useful depending on how a system is normally used, but may provide context to other potentially malicious activity occurring on a system.

Behavior that could indicate technique use include an unknown or unusual process accessing APIs associated with devices or software that interact with the microphone, recording devices, or recording software, and a process periodically writing files to disk that contain audio data.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1, Linux

Data Sources: API monitoring, Process monitoring, File monitoring

Table 129. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1123

Custom Cryptographic Protocol

Adversaries may use a custom cryptographic protocol or algorithm to hide command and control traffic. A simple scheme, such as XOR-ing the plaintext with a fixed key, will produce a very weak ciphertext.

Custom encryption schemes may vary in sophistication. Analysis and reverse engineering of malware samples may be enough to discover the algorithm and encryption key used.

Some adversaries may also attempt to implement their own version of a well-known cryptographic algorithm instead of using a known implementation library, which may lead to unintentional errors.[[Citation: F-Secure Cosmicduke]]

Detection: If malware uses custom encryption with symmetric keys, it may be possible to obtain the algorithm and key from samples and use them to decode network traffic to detect malware communications signatures.[[Citation: Fidelis DarkComet]]

In general, analyze network data for uncommon data flows (e.g., a client sending significantly more data than it receives from a server). Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Analyze packet contents to detect when communications do not follow the expected protocol behavior for the port that is being used.[[Citation: University of Birmingham C2]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1, Linux

Data Sources: Packet capture, Netflow/Enclave netflow, Process use of network, Malware reverse engineering, Process monitoring

Table 130. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1024

https://www.f-secure.com/documents/996508/1030745/cosmicduke%20whitepaper.pdf

https://www.fidelissecurity.com/sites/default/files/FTA%201018%20looking%20at%20the%20sky%20for%20a%20dark%20comet.pdf

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1408/1408.1136.pdf

Graphical User Interface

Cause a binary or script to execute based on interacting with the file through a graphical user interface (GUI) or in an interactive remote session such as Remote Desktop Protocol.

Detection: Detection of execution through the GUI will likely lead to significant false positives. Other factors should be considered to detect misuse of services that can lead to adversaries gaining access to systems through interactive remote sessions.

Unknown or unusual process launches outside of normal behavior on a particular system occurring through remote interactive sessions are suspicious. Collect and audit security logs that may indicate access to and use of [[Legitimate Credentials]] to access remote systems within the network.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Binary file metadata, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 131. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1061

Fallback Channels

Adversaries may use fallback or alternate communication channels if the primary channel is compromised or inaccessible in order to maintain reliable command and control and to avoid data transfer thresholds.

Detection: Analyze network data for uncommon data flows (e.g., a client sending significantly more data than it receives from a server). Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Analyze packet contents to detect communications that do not follow the expected protocol behavior for the port that is being used.[[Citation: University of Birmingham C2]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1, Linux

Data Sources: Packet capture, Netflow/Enclave netflow, Malware reverse engineering, Process use of network, Process monitoring

Table 132. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1008

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1408/1408.1136.pdf

Exploitation of Vulnerability

Exploitation of a software vulnerability occurs when an adversary takes advantage of a programming error in a program, service, or within the operating system software or kernel itself to execute adversary-controlled code. Exploiting software vulnerabilities may allow adversaries to run a command or binary on a remote system for lateral movement, escalate a current process to a higher privilege level, or bypass security mechanisms. Exploits may also allow an adversary access to privileged accounts and credentials. One example of this is MS14-068, which can be used to forge Kerberos tickets using domain user permissions.[[Citation: Technet MS14-068]][[Citation: ADSecurity Detecting Forged Tickets]]

Detection: Software exploits may not always succeed or may cause the exploited process to become unstable or crash. Software and operating system crash reports may contain useful contextual information about attempted exploits that correlate with other malicious activity. Exploited processes may exhibit behavior that is unusual for the specific process, such as spawning additional processes or reading and writing to files.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Windows Error Reporting, File monitoring, Process monitoring

Effective Permissions: User, Administrator, SYSTEM

Contributors: John Lambert, Microsoft Threat Intelligence Center

Table 133. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1068

https://adsecurity.org/?p=1515

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/security/ms14-068.aspx

Binary Padding

Some security tools inspect files with static signatures to determine if they are known malicious. Adversaries may add data to files to increase the size beyond what security tools are capable of handling or to change the file hash to avoid hash-based blacklists.

Detection: Depending on the method used to pad files, a file-based signature may be capable of detecting padding using a scanning or on-access based tool.

When executed, the resulting process from padded files may also exhibit other behavior characteristics of being used to conduct an intrusion such as system and network information or [[Lateral Movement]], which could be used as event indicators that point to the source file.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Table 134. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1009

Redundant Access

Adversaries may use more than one remote access tool with varying command and control protocols as a hedge against detection. If one type of tool is detected and blocked or removed as a response but the organization did not gain a full understanding of the adversary’s tools and access, then the adversary will be able to retain access to the network. Adversaries may also attempt to gain access to Legitimate Credentials to use External Remote Services such as external VPNs as a way to maintain access despite interruptions to remote access tools deployed within a target network.Web Shell is one such way to maintain access to a network through an externally accessible Web server.

Detection: Existing methods of detecting remote access tools are helpful. Backup remote access tools or other access points may not have established command and control channels open during an intrusion, so the volume of data transferred may not be as high as the primary channel unless access is lost.

Detection of tools based on beacon traffic, Legitimate Credentials and External Remote Services to collect account use information.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Process monitoring, Process use of network, Packet capture, Network protocol analysis, File monitoring, Binary file metadata, Authentication logs

Table 135. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1108

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/services/pdfs/mandiant-apt1-report.pdf

Data Encrypted

Data is encrypted before being exfiltrated in order to hide the information that is being exfiltrated from detection or to make the exfiltration less conspicuous upon inspection by a defender. The encryption is performed by a utility, programming library, or custom algorithm on the data itself and is considered separate from any encryption performed by the command and control or file transfer protocol. Common file archive formats that can encrypt files are RAR and zip.

Other exfiltration techniques likely apply as well to transfer the information out of the network, such as Exfiltration Over Command and Control Channel and Exfiltration Over Alternative Protocol

Detection: Encryption software and encrypted files can be detected in many ways. Common utilities that may be present on the system or brought in by an adversary may be detectable through process monitoring and monitoring for command-line arguments for known encryption utilities. This may yield a significant amount of benign events, depending on how systems in the environment are typically used. Often the encryption key is stated within command-line invocation of the software.

A process that loads the Windows DLL crypt32.dll may be used to perform encryption, decryption, or verification of file signatures.

Network traffic may also be analyzed for entropy to determine if encrypted data is being transmitted.[[Citation: Zhang 2013]] If the communications channel is unencrypted, encrypted files of known file types can be detected in transit during exfiltration with a network intrusion detection or data loss prevention system analyzing file headers.[[Citation: Wikipedia File Header Signatures]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Binary file metadata, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 136. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1022

http://www.netsec.colostate.edu/zhang/DetectingEncryptedBotnetTraffic.pdf[http://www.netsec.colostate.edu/zhang/DetectingEncryptedBotnetTraffic.pdf]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List%20of%20file%20signatures

DLL Search Order Hijacking

Windows systems use a common method to look for required DLLs to load into a program.[[Citation: Microsoft DLL Search]] Adversaries may take advantage of the Windows DLL search order and programs that ambiguously specify DLLs to gain privilege escalation and persistence.

Adversaries may perform DLL preloading, also called binary planting attacks,[[Citation: OWASP Binary Planting]] by placing a malicious DLL with the same name as an ambiguously specified DLL in a location that Windows searches before the legitimate DLL. Often this location is the current working directory of the program. Remote DLL preloading attacks occur when a program sets its current directory to a remote location such as a Web share before loading a DLL.[[Citation: Microsoft 2269637]] Adversaries may use this behavior to cause the program to load a malicious DLL.

Adversaries may also directly modify the way a program loads DLLs by replacing an existing DLL or modifying a .manifest or .local redirection file, directory, or junction to cause the program to load a different DLL to maintain persistence or privilege escalation.[[Citation: Microsoft DLL Redirection]][[Citation: Microsoft Manifests]][[Citation: Mandiant Search Order]]

If a search order-vulnerable program is configured to run at a higher privilege level, then the adversary-controlled DLL that is loaded will also be executed at the higher level. In this case, the technique could be used for privilege escalation from user to administrator or SYSTEM or from administrator to SYSTEM, depending on the program.

Programs that fall victim to path hijacking may appear to behave normally because malicious DLLs may be configured to also load the legitimate DLLs they were meant to replace.

Detection: Monitor file systems for moving, renaming, replacing, or modifying DLLs. Changes in the set of DLLs that are loaded by a process (compared with past behavior) that do not correlate with known software, patches, etc., are suspicious. Monitor DLLs loaded into a process and detect DLLs that have the same file name but abnormal paths. Modifications to or creation of .manifest and .local redirection files that do not correlate with software updates are suspicious. Disallow loading of remote DLLs.[[Citation: Microsoft DLL Preloading]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, DLL monitoring, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Effective Permissions: User, Administrator, SYSTEM

Contributors: Stefan Kanthak

Table 137. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1038

http://blogs.technet.com/b/msrc/archive/2010/08/21/microsoft-security-advisory-2269637-released.aspx

https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Binary%20planting

https://www.mandiant.com/blog/dll-search-order-hijacking-revisited/

http://blogs.technet.com/b/srd/archive/2010/08/23/more-information-about-dll-preloading-remote-attack-vector.aspx

https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-US/library/aa375365

http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-US/library/ms682600

http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-US/library/ms682586

Data from Network Shared Drive

Sensitive data can be collected from remote systems via shared network drives (host shared directory, network file server, etc.) that are accessible from the current system prior to cmd may be used to gather information.

Detection: Monitor processes and command-line arguments for actions that could be taken to collect files from a network share. Remote access tools with built-in features may interact directly with the Windows API to gather data. Data may also be acquired through Windows system management tools such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process monitoring, Process command-line parameters

Table 138. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1039

AppInit DLLs

DLLs that are specified in the AppInit_DLLs value in the Registry key <code>HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Windows</code> are loaded by user32.dll into every process that loads user32.dll. In practice this is nearly every program. This value can be abused to obtain persistence by causing a DLL to be loaded into most processes on the computer.[[Citation: AppInit Registry]]

The AppInit DLL functionality is disabled in Windows 8 and later versions when secure boot is enabled.[[Citation: AppInit Secure Boot]]

Detection: Monitor DLL loads by processes that load user32.dll and look for DLLs that are not recognized or not normally loaded into a process. Monitor the AppInit_DLLs Registry value for modifications that do not correlate with known software, patch cycles, etc. Tools such as Sysinternals Autoruns may also be used to detect system changes that could be attempts at persistence, including listing current AppInit DLLs.[[Citation: TechNet Autoruns]]

Look for abnormal process behavior that may be due to a process loading a malicious DLL. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities, such as making network connections for [[Command and Control]], learning details about the environment through , and conducting [[Lateral Movement]].

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Loaded DLLs, Process monitoring, Windows Registry

Effective Permissions: Administrator, SYSTEM

Table 139. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1103

https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/197571

https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dn280412

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb963902

Standard Non-Application Layer Protocol

Use of a standard non-application layer protocol for communication between host and C2 server or among infected hosts within a network. The list of possible protocols is extensive.[[Citation: Wikipedia OSI]] Specific examples include use of network layer protocols, such as the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), and transport layer protocols, such as the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

ICMP communication between hosts is one example. Because ICMP is part of the Internet Protocol Suite, it is required to be implemented by all IP-compatible hosts;[[Citation: Microsoft ICMP]] however, it is not as commonly monitored as other Internet Protocols such as TCP or UDP and may be used by adversaries to hide communications.

Detection: Analyze network traffic for ICMP messages or other protocols that contain abnormal data or are not normally seen within or exiting the network.

Analyze network data for uncommon data flows (e.g., a client sending significantly more data than it receives from a server). Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Analyze packet contents to detect communications that do not follow the expected protocol behavior for the port that is being used.[[Citation: University of Birmingham C2]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1, Linux

Table 140. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1095

http://support.microsoft.com/KB/170292

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1408/1408.1136.pdf

Netsh Helper DLL

Netsh.exe (also referred to as Netshell) is a command-line scripting utility used to interact with the network configuration of a system. It contains functionality to add helper DLLs for extending functionality of the utility.[[Citation: TechNet Netsh]] The paths to registered netsh.exe helper DLLs are entered into the Windows Registry at <code>HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Netsh</code>.

Adversaries can use netsh.exe with helper DLLs to proxy execution of arbitrary code in a persistent manner when netsh.exe is executed automatically with another technique or if other persistent software is present on the system that executes netsh.exe as part of its normal functionality. Examples include some VPN software that invoke netsh.exe.[[Citation: Demaske Netsh Persistence]]

Proof of concept code exists to load Cobalt Strike’s payload using netsh.exe helper DLLs.[[Citation: Github Netsh Helper CS Beacon]]

Detection: It is likely unusual for netsh.exe to have any child processes in most environments. Monitor process executions and investigate any child processes spawned by netsh.exe for malicious behavior. Monitor the <code>HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Netsh</code> registry key for any new or suspicious entries that do not correlate with known system files or benign software.[[Citation: Demaske Netsh Persistence]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Process monitoring, DLL monitoring, Windows Registry

Contributors: Matthew Demaske, Adaptforward

Table 141. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1128

https://htmlpreview.github.io/?https://github.com/MatthewDemaske/blogbackup/blob/master/netshell.html

https://github.com/outflankbv/NetshHelperBeacon

https://technet.microsoft.com/library/bb490939.aspx

Credential Manipulation

Account creation and manipulation may aid adversaries in maintaining access to credentials and certain permission levels within an environment. Manipulation could consist of creating new credentials, modifying permissions, adding or changing permission groups, modifying account settings, or modifying how authentication is performed. In order to create or manipulate accounts, the adversary must already have sufficient permissions on systems or the domain.

Detection: Monitor for creation or modification of accounts in correlation with other suspicious activity. Changes may occur at unusual times or from unusual systems.

Use of credentials may also occur at unusual times or to unusual systems or services and may correlate with other suspicious activity.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Authentication logs, API monitoring

Table 142. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1098

Remote System Discovery

Adversaries will likely attempt to get a listing of other systems by IP address, hostname, or other logical identifier on a network that may be used for Net.

Detection: System and network discovery techniques normally occur throughout an operation as an adversary learns the environment. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities, such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Network protocol analysis, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring, Process use of network

Table 143. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1018

Permission Groups Discovery

Adversaries may attempt to find local system or domain-level groups and permissions settings. Examples of commands that can list groups are <code>net group /domain</code> and <code>net localgroup</code> using the Net utility.

Detection: System and network discovery techniques normally occur throughout an operation as an adversary learns the environment. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities, such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: API monitoring, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 144. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1069

File Deletion

Malware, tools, or other non-native files dropped or created on a system by an adversary may leave traces behind as to what was done within a network and how. Adversaries may remove these files over the course of an intrusion to keep their footprint low or remove them at the end as part of the post-intrusion cleanup process.

There are tools available from the host operating system to perform cleanup, but adversaries may use other tools as well. Examples include native cmd functions such as DEL, secure deletion tools such as Windows Sysinternals SDelete, or other third-party file deletion tools.[[Citation: Trend Micro APT Attack Tools]]

Detection: It may be uncommon for events related to benign command-line functions such as DEL or third-party utilities or tools to be found in an environment, depending on the user base and how systems are typically used. Monitoring for command-line deletion functions to correlate with binaries or other files that an adversary may drop and remove may lead to detection of malicious activity. Another good practice is monitoring for known deletion and secure deletion tools that are not already on systems within an enterprise network that an adversary could introduce. Some monitoring tools may collect command-line arguments, but may not capture DEL commands since DEL is a native function within cmd.exe.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1, Linux

Data Sources: File monitoring, Binary file metadata, Process command-line parameters

Contributors: Walker Johnson

Table 145. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1107

http://blog.trendmicro.com/trendlabs-security-intelligence/in-depth-look-apt-attack-tools-of-the-trade/

Path Interception

Path interception occurs when an executable is placed in a specific path so that it is executed by an application instead of the intended target. One example of this was the use of a copy of cmd in the current working directory of a vulnerable application that loads a CMD or BAT file with the CreateProcess function.DLL Search Order Hijacking.

Detection: Monitor file creation for files named after partial directories and in locations that may be searched for common processes through the environment variable, or otherwise should not be user writable. Monitor the executing process for process executable paths that are named for partial directories. Monitor file creation for programs that are named after Windows system programs or programs commonly executed without a path (such as "findstr," "net," and "python"). If this activity occurs outside of known administration activity, upgrades, installations, or patches, then it may be suspicious.

Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities, such as network connections made for [[Command and Control]], learning details about the environment through , and [[Lateral Movement]].

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process monitoring

Effective Permissions: User, Administrator, SYSTEM

Contributors: Stefan Kanthak

Table 146. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1034

http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms682425

http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc723564.aspx#XSLTsection127121120120

https://isc.sans.edu/diary/Help+eliminate+unquoted+path+vulnerabilities/14464

https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/fd7hxfdd.aspx

http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms687393

http://support.microsoft.com/KB/103000

https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/srd/2014/04/08/ms14-019-fixing-a-binary-hijacking-via-cmd-or-bat-file/

Bootkit

A bootkit is a malware variant that modifies the boot sectors of a hard drive, including the Master Boot Record (MBR) and Volume Boot Record (VBR).[[Citation: MTrends 2016]]

Adversaries may use bootkits to persist on systems at a layer below the operating system, which may make it difficult to perform full remediation unless an organization suspects one was used and can act accordingly.

===Master Boot Record=== The MBR is the section of disk that is first loaded after completing hardware initialization by the BIOS. It is the location of the boot loader. An adversary who has raw access to the boot drive may overwrite this area, diverting execution during startup from the normal boot loader to adversary code.[[Citation: Lau 2011]]

===Volume Boot Record=== The MBR passes control of the boot process to the VBR. Similar to the case of MBR, an adversary who has raw access to the boot drive may overwrite the VBR to divert execution during startup to adversary code.

Detection: Perform integrity checking on MBR and VBR. Take snapshots of MBR and VBR and compare against known good samples. Report changes to MBR and VBR as they occur for indicators of suspicious activity and further analysis.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1, Linux

Data Sources: API monitoring, MBR, VBR

Table 147. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1067

http://www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/are-mbr-infections-back-fashion

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/regional/fr%20FR/offers/pdfs/ig-mtrends-2016.pdf

Indicator Removal on Host

Adversaries may delete or alter generated event files on a host system, including potentially captured files such as quarantined malware. This may compromise the integrity of the security solution, causing events to go unreported, or make forensic analysis and incident response more difficult due to lack of sufficient data to determine what occurred.

Detection: File system monitoring may be used to detect improper deletion or modification of indicator files. Events not stored on the file system will require different detection mechanisms.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 148. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1070

Exfiltration Over Other Network Medium

Exfiltration could occur over a different network medium than the command and control channel. If the command and control network is a wired Internet connection, the exfiltration may occur, for example, over a WiFi connection, modem, cellular data connection, Bluetooth, or another radio frequency (RF) channel. Adversaries could choose to do this if they have sufficient access or proximity, and the connection might not be secured or defended as well as the primary Internet-connected channel because it is not routed through the same enterprise network.

Detection: Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before. Processes that normally require user-driven events to access the network (for example, a mouse click or key press) but access the network without such may be malicious.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: User interface, Process monitoring

Contributors: Itzik Kotler, SafeBreach

Table 149. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1011

Data from Local System

Sensitive data can be collected from local system sources, such as the file system or databases of information residing on the system prior to Command-Line Interface, such as cmd, which has functionality to interact with the file system to gather information. Some adversaries may also use Automated Collection on the local system.

Detection: Monitor processes and command-line arguments for actions that could be taken to collect files from a system. Remote access tools with built-in features may interact directly with the Windows API to gather data. Data may also be acquired through Windows system management tools such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process monitoring, Process command-line parameters

Table 150. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1005

Web Shell

A Web shell is a Web script that is placed on an openly accessible Web server to allow an adversary to use the Web server as a gateway into a network. A Web shell may provide a set of functions to execute or a command-line interface on the system that hosts the Web server. In addition to a server-side script, a Web shell may have a client interface program that is used to talk to the Web server (see, for example, China Chopper Web shell client).Redundant Access or as a persistence mechanism in case an adversary’s primary access methods are detected and removed.

Detection: Web shells can be difficult to detect. Unlike other forms of persistent remote access, they do not initiate connections. The portion of the Web shell that is on the server may be small and innocuous looking. The PHP version of the China Chopper Web shell, for example, is the following short payload:cmd or accessing files that are not in the Web directory. File monitoring may be used to detect changes to files in the Web directory of a Web server that do not match with updates to the Web server’s content and may indicate implantation of a Web shell script. Log authentication attempts to the server and any unusual traffic patterns to or from the server and internal network.[[Citation: US-CERT Alert TA15-314A Web Shells]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Anti-virus, File monitoring, Process monitoring, Authentication logs, Netflow/Enclave netflow

Effective Permissions: User, SYSTEM

Table 151. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1100

https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/TA15-314A

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2013/08/breaking-down-the-china-chopper-web-shell-part-i.html

Service Registry Permissions Weakness

Windows stores local service configuration information in the Registry under <code>HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services</code>. The information stored under a service’s Registry keys can be manipulated to modify a service’s execution parameters through tools such as the service controller, sc.exe, PowerShell, or Reg. Access to Registry keys is controlled through Access Control Lists and permissions.Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell, so additional logging may need to be configured to gather the appropriate data.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Windows Registry, Services, Process command-line parameters

Effective Permissions: SYSTEM

Table 152. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1058

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb963902

https://msdn.microsoft.com/library/windows/desktop/ms724878.aspx

Windows Admin Shares

Windows systems have hidden network shares that are accessible only to administrators and provide the ability for remote file copy and other administrative functions. Example network shares include <code>C$</code>, <code>ADMIN$</code>, and <code>IPC$</code>.

Adversaries may use this technique in conjunction with administrator-level Legitimate Credentials to remotely access a networked system over server message block (SMB)Scheduled Task, Service Execution, and Windows Management Instrumentation. Adversaries can also use NTLM hashes to access administrator shares on systems with Pass the Hash and certain configuration and patch levels.Net utility can be used to connect to Windows admin shares on remote systems using <code>net use</code> commands with valid credentials.Net, on the command-line interface and techniques that could be used to find remotely accessible systems.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Process use of network, Authentication logs, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 153. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1077

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Server%20Message%20Block

https://technet.microsoft.com/bb490717.aspx

http://support.microsoft.com/kb/314984

http://blogs.technet.com/b/jepayne/archive/2015/11/24/monitoring-what-matters-windows-event-forwarding-for-everyone-even-if-you-already-have-a-siem.aspx

http://blogs.technet.com/b/jepayne/archive/2015/11/27/tracking-lateral-movement-part-one-special-groups-and-specific-service-accounts.aspx

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc787851.aspx

Winlogon Helper DLL

Winlogon is a part of some Windows versions that performs actions at logon. In Windows systems prior to Windows Vista, a Registry key can be modified that causes Winlogon to load a DLL on startup. Adversaries may take advantage of this feature to load adversarial code at startup for persistence.

Detection: Monitor for changes to registry entries in <code>HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon\Notify</code> that do not correlate with known software, patch cycles, etc. Tools such as Sysinternals Autoruns may also be used to detect system changes that could be attempts at persistence, including listing current Winlogon helper values.[[Citation: TechNet Autoruns]] New DLLs written to System32 that do not correlate with known good software or patching may also be suspicious.

Look for abnormal process behavior that may be due to a process loading a malicious DLL. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities, such as network connections made for [[Command and Control]], learning details about the environment through , and [[Lateral Movement]].

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003 R2

Data Sources: Windows Registry, File monitoring, Process monitoring

Table 154. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1004

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb963902

Remote Services

An adversary may use valid credentials to log into a service specifically designed to accept remote connections, such as telnet, SSH, and VNC. The adversary may then perform actions as the logged-on user.

Detection: Correlate use of login activity related to remote services with unusual behavior or other malicious or suspicious activity. Adversaries will likely need to learn about an environment and the relationships between systems through techniques prior to attempting [[Lateral Movement]].

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Authentication logs

Table 155. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1021

Accessibility Features

Windows contains accessibility features that may be launched with a key combination before a user has logged in (for example, when the user is on the Windows logon screen). An adversary can modify the way these programs are launched to get a command prompt or backdoor without logging in to the system.

Two of these accessibility programs are <code>C:\Windows\System32\utilman.exe</code>, launched when the Windows + U key combination is pressed, and <code>C:\Windows\System32\sethc.exe</code>, launched when the shift key is pressed five times. The program "sethc.exe" is often referred to as sticky keys, and has been used by adversaries for unauthenticated access through a remote desktop login screen.Remote Desktop Protocol will cause the replaced file to be executed with SYSTEM privileges.[[Citation: Tilbury 2014]]

On Windows Vista and later as well as Windows Server 2008 and later, a Registry key may be modified that configures "cmd.exe," or another program that provides backdoor access, as a "debugger" for the accessibility program (e.g., "utilman.exe"). After the Registry is modified, pressing the appropriate key combination at the login screen while at the keyboard or when connected with RDP will cause the "debugger" program to be executed with SYSTEM privileges.[[Citation: Tilbury 2014]]

Detection: Changes to accessibility utility binaries or binary paths that do not correlate with known software, patch cycles, etc., are suspicious. Command line invocation of tools capable of modifying the Registry for associated keys are also suspicious. Utility arguments and the binaries themselves should be monitored for changes. Monitor Registry keys within <code>HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Image File Execution Options</code>.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Windows Registry, File monitoring, Process monitoring

Effective Permissions: SYSTEM

Table 156. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1015

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2012/08/hikit-rootkit-advanced-persistent-attack-techniques-part-1.html

http://blog.crowdstrike.com/registry-analysis-with-crowdresponse/

Taint Shared Content

Content stored on network drives or in other shared locations may be tainted by adding malicious programs, scripts, or exploit code to otherwise valid files. Once a user opens the shared tainted content, the malicious portion can be executed to run the adversary’s code on a remote system. Adversaries may use tainted shared content to move laterally.

Detection: Processes that write or overwrite many files to a network shared directory may be suspicious. Monitor processes that are executed from removable media for malicious or abnormal activity such as network connections due to [[Command and Control]] and possible network techniques.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process monitoring

Table 157. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1080

External Remote Services

Remote services such as VPNs, Citrix, and other access mechanisms allow users to connect to internal enterprise network resources from external locations. There are often remote service gateways that manage connections and credential authentication for these services.

Adversaries may use remote services to access and persist within a network.Legitimate Credentials to use the service is often a requirement, which could be obtained through credential pharming or by obtaining the credentials from users after compromising the enterprise network. Access to remote services may be used as part of Redundant Access during an operation.

Detection: Follow best practices for detecting adversary use of Legitimate Credentials for authenticating to remote services. Collect authentication logs and analyze for unusual access patterns, windows of activity, and access outside of normal business hours.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Authentication logs

Contributors: Daniel Oakley

Table 158. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1133

https://www.volexity.com/blog/2015/10/07/virtual-private-keylogging-cisco-web-vpns-leveraged-for-access-and-persistence/

Application Deployment Software

Adversaries may deploy malicious software to systems within a network using application deployment systems employed by enterprise administrators. The permissions required for this action vary by system configuration; local credentials may be sufficient with direct access to the deployment server, or specific domain credentials may be required. However, the system may require an administrative account to log in or to perform software deployment.

Access to a network-wide or enterprise-wide software deployment system enables an adversary to have remote code execution on all systems that are connected to such a system. The access may be used to laterally move to systems, gather information, or cause a specific effect, such as wiping the hard drives on all endpoints.

Detection: Monitor application deployments from a secondary system. Perform application deployment at regular times so that irregular deployment activity stands out. Monitor process activity that does not correlate to known good software. Monitor account login activity on the deployment system.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process use of network, Process monitoring

Table 159. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1017

Automated Collection

Once established within a system or network, an adversary may use automated techniques for collecting internal data. Methods for performing this technique could include use of Scripting to search for and copy information fitting set criteria such as file type, location, or name at specific time intervals. This functionality could also be built into remote access tools.

This technique may incorporate use of other techniques such as File and Directory Discovery and Remote File Copy to identify and move files.

Detection: Depending on the method used, actions could include common file system commands and parameters on the command-line interface within batch files or scripts. A sequence of actions like this may be unusual, depending on the system and network environment. Automated collection may occur along with other techniques such as Data Staged. As such, file access monitoring that shows an unusual process performing sequential file opens and potentially copy actions to another location on the file system for many files at once may indicate automated collection behavior. Remote access tools with built-in features may interact directly with the Windows API to gather data. Data may also be acquired through Windows system management tools such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process command-line parameters, Data loss prevention

Table 160. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1119

Security Support Provider

Windows Security Support Provider (SSP) DLLs are loaded into the Local Security Authority (LSA) process at system start. Once loaded into the LSA, SSP DLLs have access to encrypted and plaintext passwords that are stored in Windows, such as any logged-on user’s Domain password or smart card PINs. The SSP configuration is stored in two Registry keys: <code>HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\Security Packages</code> and <code>HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\OSConfig\Security Packages</code>. An adversary may modify these Registry keys to add new SSPs, which will be loaded the next time the system boots, or when the AddSecurityPackage Windows API function is called. [[Citation: Graeber 2014]]

Detection: Monitor the Registry for changes to the SSP Registry keys. Monitor the LSA process for DLL loads. Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2 may generate events when unsigned SSP DLLs try to load into the LSA by setting the Registry key <code>HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Image File Execution Options\LSASS.exe</code> with AuditLevel = 8.[[Citation: Graeber 2014]][[Citation: Microsoft Configure LSA]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: DLL monitoring, Windows Registry, Loaded DLLs

Table 161. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1101

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dn408187.aspx

http://docplayer.net/20839173-Analysis-of-malicious-security-support-provider-dlls.html

Rundll32

The rundll32.exe program can be called to execute an arbitrary binary. Adversaries may take advantage of this functionality to proxy execution of code to avoid triggering security tools that may not monitor execution of the rundll32.exe process because of whitelists or false positives from Windows using rundll32.exe for normal operations.

Detection: Use process monitoring to monitor the execution and arguments of rundll32.exe. Compare recent invocations of rundll32.exe with prior history of known good arguments and loaded DLLs to determine anomalous and potentially adversarial activity. Command arguments used with the rundll32.exe invocation may also be useful in determining the origin and purpose of the DLL being loaded.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Binary file metadata, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 162. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1085

Network Sniffing

Network sniffing refers to using the network interface on a system to monitor or capture information sent over a wired or wireless connection.

User credentials may be sent over an insecure, unencrypted protocol that can be captured and obtained through network packet analysis. An adversary may place a network interface into promiscuous mode, using a utility to capture traffic in transit over the network or use span ports to capture a larger amount of data. In addition, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and Domain Name Service (DNS) poisoning can be used to capture credentials to websites, proxies, and internal systems by redirecting traffic to an adversary.

Detection: Detecting the events leading up to sniffing network traffic may be the best method of detection. From the host level, an adversary would likely need to perform a man-in-the-middle attack against other devices on a wired network in order to capture traffic that was not to or from the current compromised system. This change in the flow of information is detectable at the enclave network level. Monitor for ARP spoofing and gratuitous ARP broadcasts. Detecting compromised network devices is a bit more challenging. Auditing administrator logins, configuration changes, and device images is required to detect malicious changes.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Network device logs, Host network interface, Netflow/Enclave netflow

Table 163. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1040

Local Port Monitor

A port monitor can be set through the AddMonitor API call to set a DLL to be loaded at startup.[[Citation: AddMonitor]] This DLL can be located in <code>C:\Windows\System32</code> and will be loaded by the print spooler service, spoolsv.exe, on boot.[[Citation: Bloxham]] Alternatively, an arbitrary DLL can be loaded if permissions allow writing a fully-qualified pathname for that DLL to <code>HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Print\Monitors</code>.[[Citation: Bloxham]] The spoolsv.exe process also runs under SYSTEM level permissions.

Adversaries can use this technique to load malicious code at startup that will persist on system reboot and execute as SYSTEM.

Detection: * Monitor process API calls to AddMonitor. * Monitor DLLs that are loaded by spoolsv.exe for DLLs that are abnormal. * New DLLs written to the System32 directory that do not correlate with known good software or patching may be suspicious. * Monitor registry writes to <code>HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Print\Monitors</code>. * Run the Autoruns utility, which checks for this Registry key as a persistence mechanism[[Citation: TechNet Autoruns]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, API monitoring, DLL monitoring, Windows Registry, Process monitoring

Effective Permissions: SYSTEM

Contributors: Stefan Kanthak

Table 164. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1013

https://www.defcon.org/images/defcon-22/dc-22-presentations/Bloxham/DEFCON-22-Brady-Bloxham-Windows-API-Abuse-UPDATED.pdf

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb963902

http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd183341

Software Packing

Software packing is a method of compressing or encrypting an executable. Packing an executable changes the file signature in an attempt to avoid signature-based detection. Most decompression techniques decompress the executable code in memory.

Utilities used to perform software packing are called packers. Example packers are MPRESS and UPX. A more comprehensive list of known packers is available,[[Citation: Wikipedia Exe Compression]] but adversaries may create their own packing techniques that do not leave the same artifacts as well-known packers to evade defenses.

Detection: Use file scanning to look for known software packers or artifacts of packing techniques. Packing is not a definitive indicator of malicious activity, because legitimate software may use packing techniques to reduce binary size or to protect proprietary code.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Binary file metadata

Table 165. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1045

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executable%20compression

Application Window Discovery

Adversaries may attempt to get a listing of open application windows. Window listings could convey information about how the system is used or give context to information collected by a keylogger.

Detection: System and network discovery techniques normally occur throughout an operation as an adversary learns the environment. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities based on the information obtained.

Monitor processes and command-line arguments for actions that could be taken to gather system and network information. Remote access tools with built-in features may interact directly with the Windows API to gather information. Information may also be acquired through Windows system management tools such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: API monitoring, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 166. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1010

Hypervisor

A type-1 hypervisor is a software layer that sits between the guest operating systems and system’s hardware.Rootkit functionality to hide its existence from the guest operating system.[[Citation: Myers 2007]] A malicious hypervisor of this nature could be used to persist on systems through interruption.

Detection: Type-1 hypervisors may be detected by performing timing analysis. Hypervisors emulate certain CPU instructions that would normally be executed by the hardware. If an instruction takes orders of magnitude longer to execute than normal on a system that should not contain a hypervisor, one may be present.[[Citation: virtualization.info 2006]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: System calls

Table 167. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1062

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.90.8832&rep=rep1&type=pdf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xen

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypervisor

http://virtualization.info/en/news/2006/08/debunking-blue-pill-myth.html

Credential Dumping

Credential dumping is the process of obtaining account login and password information from the operating system and software. Credentials can be used to perform Windows Credential Editor, Mimikatz, and gsecdump. These tools are in use by both professional security testers and adversaries.

Plaintext passwords can be obtained using tools such as Mimikatz to extract passwords stored by the Local Security Authority (LSA). If smart cards are used to authenticate to a domain using a personal identification number (PIN), then that PIN is also cached as a result and may be dumped.Mimikatz access the LSA Subsystem Service (LSASS) process by opening the process, locating the LSA secrets key, and decrypting the sections in memory where credential details are stored. Credential dumpers may also use methods for reflective DLL Injection to reduce potential indicators of malicious activity.

NTLM hash dumpers open the Security Accounts Manager (SAM) on the local file system (%SystemRoot%/system32/config/SAM) or create a dump of the Registry SAM key to access stored account password hashes. Some hash dumpers will open the local file system as a device and parse to the SAM table to avoid file access defenses. Others will make an in-memory copy of the SAM table before reading hashes. Detection of compromised Legitimate Credentials in-use by adversaries may help as well.

On Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2, monitor Windows Logs for LSASS.exe creation to verify that LSASS started as a protected process.

Monitor processes and command-line arguments for program execution that may be indicative of credential dumping. Remote access tools may contain built-in features or incorporate existing tools like Mimikatz. PowerShell scripts also exist that contain credential dumping functionality, such as PowerSploit’s Invoke-Mimikatz module,[[Citation: Powersploit]] which may require additional logging features to be configured in the operating system to collect necessary information for analysis.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: API monitoring, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring, PowerShell logs

Table 168. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1003

https://github.com/gentilkiwi/mimikatz/wiki/module--sekurlsa[https://github.com/gentilkiwi/mimikatz/wiki/module--sekurlsa]

https://github.com/mattifestation/PowerSploit

Web Service

Adversaries may use an existing, legitimate external Web service as a means for relaying commands to a compromised system.

Popular websites and social media can act as a mechanism for command and control and give a significant amount of cover due to the likelihood that hosts within a network are already communicating with them prior to a compromise. Using common services, such as those offered by Google or Twitter, makes it easier for adversaries to hide in expected noise. Web service providers commonly use SSL/TLS encryption, giving adversaries an added level of protection.

Detection: Host data that can relate unknown or suspicious process activity using a network connection is important to supplement any existing indicators of compromise based on malware command and control signatures and infrastructure or the presence of strong encryption. Analyze network data for uncommon data flows (e.g., a client sending significantly more data than it receives from a server). Analyze packet contents to detect communications that do not follow the expected protocol behavior for the port that is being used.[[Citation: University of Birmingham C2]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Host network interface, Netflow/Enclave netflow, Network protocol analysis, Packet capture

Table 169. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1102

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1408/1408.1136.pdf

Query Registry

Adversaries may interact with the Windows Registry to gather information about the system, configuration, and installed software.

The Registry contains a significant amount of information about the operating system, configuration, software, and security.Reg or through running malware that may interact with the Registry through an API. Command-line invocation of utilities used to query the Registry may be detected through process and command-line monitoring. Remote access tools with built-in features may interact directly with the Windows API to gather information. Information may also be acquired through Windows system management tools such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Windows Registry, Process monitoring, Process command-line parameters

Table 170. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1012

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows%20Registry

Third-party Software

Third-party applications and software deployment systems may be in use in the network environment for administration purposes (e.g., SCCM, VNC, HBSS, Altiris, etc.). If an adversary gains access to these systems, then they may be able to execute code.

Adversaries may gain access to and use third-party application deployment systems installed within an enterprise network. Access to a network-wide or enterprise-wide software deployment system enables an adversary to have remote code execution on all systems that are connected to such a system. The access may be used to laterally move to systems, gather information, or cause a specific effect, such as wiping the hard drives on all endpoints.

The permissions required for this action vary by system configuration; local credentials may be sufficient with direct access to the deployment server, or specific domain credentials may be required. However, the system may require an administrative account to log in or to perform software deployment.

Detection: Detection methods will vary depending on the type of third-party software or system and how it is typically used.

The same investigation process can be applied here as with other potentially malicious activities where the distribution vector is initially unknown but the resulting activity follows a discernible pattern. Analyze the process execution trees, historical activities from the third-party application (such as what types of files are usually pushed), and the resulting activities or events from the file/binary/script pushed to systems.

Often these third-party applications will have logs of their own that can be collected and correlated with other data from the environment. Audit software deployment logs and look for suspicious or unauthorized activity. A system not typically used to push software to clients that suddenly is used for such a task outside of a known admin function may be suspicious.

Perform application deployment at regular times so that irregular deployment activity stands out. Monitor process activity that does not correlate to known good software. Monitor account login activity on the deployment system.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Third-party application logs, Binary file metadata, Windows Registry, Process monitoring, Process use of network

Table 171. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1072

Remote File Copy

Files may be copied from one system to another to stage adversary tools or other files over the course of an operation. Files may be copied from an external adversary-controlled system through the FTP.

Adversaries may also copy files laterally between internal victim systems to support Windows Admin Shares or Remote Desktop Protocol.

Detection: Monitor for file creation and files transferred within a network over SMB. Unusual processes with external network connections creating files on-system may be suspicious. Use of utilities, such as FTP, that does not normally occur may also be suspicious.

Analyze network data for uncommon data flows (e.g., a client sending significantly more data than it receives from a server). Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Analyze packet contents to detect communications that do not follow the expected protocol behavior for the port that is being used.[[Citation: University of Birmingham C2]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Packet capture, Process use of network, Netflow/Enclave netflow, Network protocol analysis, Process monitoring

Table 172. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1105

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1408/1408.1136.pdf

File System Logical Offsets

Windows allows programs to have direct access to logical volumes. Programs with direct access may read and write files directly from the drive by analyzing file system data structures. This technique bypasses Windows file access controls as well as file system monitoring tools.PowerShell, additional logging of PowerShell scripts is recommended.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: API monitoring

Table 173. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1006

https://github.com/PowerShellMafia/PowerSploit/blob/master/Exfiltration/Invoke-NinjaCopy.ps1

http://www.codeproject.com/Articles/32169/FDump-Dumping-File-Sectors-Directly-from-Disk-usin

Shared Webroot

Adversaries may add malicious content to an internally accessible website through an open network file share that contains the website’s webroot or Web content directory and then browse to that content with a Web browser to cause the server to execute the malicious content. The malicious content will typically run under the context and permissions of the Web server process, often resulting in local system or administrative privileges, depending on how the Web server is configured.

This mechanism of shared access and remote execution could be used for lateral movement to the system running the Web server. For example, a Web server running PHP with an open network share could allow an adversary to upload a remote access tool and PHP script to execute the RAT on the system running the Web server when a specific page is visited.

Detection: Use file and process monitoring to detect when files are written to a Web server by a process that is not the normal Web server process or when files are written outside of normal administrative time periods. Use process monitoring to identify normal processes that run on the Web server and detect processes that are not typically executed.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: File monitoring, Process monitoring

Table 174. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1051

Indicator Blocking

An adversary may attempt to block indicators or events from leaving the host machine. In the case of network-based reporting of indicators, an adversary may block traffic associated with reporting to prevent central analysis. This may be accomplished by many means, such as stopping a local process or creating a host-based firewall rule to block traffic to a specific server.

Detection: Detect lack of reported activity from a host sensor. Different methods of blocking may cause different disruptions in reporting. Systems may suddenly stop reporting all data or only certain kinds of data.

Depending on the types of host information collected, an analyst may be able to detect the event that triggered a process to stop or connection to be blocked.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Sensor health and status, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring

Table 175. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1054

Exfiltration Over Physical Medium

In certain circumstances, such as an air-gapped network compromise, exfiltration could occur via a physical medium or device introduced by a user. Such media could be an external hard drive, USB drive, cellular phone, MP3 player, or other removable storage and processing device. The physical medium or device could be used as the final exfiltration point or to hop between otherwise disconnected systems.

Detection: Monitor file access on removable media. Detect processes that execute when removable media are mounted.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Data loss prevention, File monitoring

Table 176. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1052

System Time Discovery

The system time is set and stored by the Windows Time Service within a domain to maintain time synchronization between systems and services in an enterprise network.Net on Windows by performing <code>net time \\hostname</code> to gather the system time on a remote system. The victim’s time zone may also be inferred from the current system time or gathered by using <code>w32tm /tz</code>.Scheduled Task[[Citation: RSA EU12 They’re Inside]], or to discover locality information based on time zone to assist in victim targeting.

Detection: Command-line interface monitoring may be useful to detect instances of net.exe or other command-line utilities being used to gather system time or time zone. Methods of detecting API use for gathering this information are likely less useful due to how often they may be used by legitimate software.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Process monitoring, Process command-line parameters, API monitoring

Table 177. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1124

https://technet.microsoft.com/windows-server-docs/identity/ad-ds/get-started/windows-time-service/windows-time-service-tools-and-settings

https://www.rsaconference.com/writable/presentations/file%20upload/ht-209%20rivner%20schwartz.pdf

https://msdn.microsoft.com/ms724961.aspx

Execution through Module Load

The Windows module loader can be instructed to load DLLs from arbitrary local paths and arbitrary Universal Naming Convention (UNC) network paths. This functionality resides in NTDLL.dll and is part of the Windows Native API which is called from functions like CreateProcess(), LoadLibrary(), etc. of the Win32 API.[[Citation: Wikipedia Windows Library Files]]

The module loader can load DLLs:

*via specification of the (fully-qualified or relative) DLL pathname in the IMPORT directory;

*via EXPORT forwarded to another DLL, specified with (fully-qualified or relative) pathname (but without extension);

*via an NTFS junction or symlink program.exe.local with the fully-qualified or relative pathname of a directory containing the DLLs specified in the IMPORT directory or forwarded EXPORTs;

*via <code><file name="filename.extension" loadFrom="fully-qualified or relative pathname"></code> in an embedded or external "application manifest". The file name refers to an entry in the IMPORT directory or a forwarded EXPORT.

Adversaries can use this functionality as a way to execute arbitrary code on a system.

Detection: Monitoring DLL module loads may generate a significant amount of data and may not be directly useful for defense unless collected under specific circumstances, since benign use of Windows modules load functions are common and may be difficult to distinguish from malicious behavior. Legitimate software will likely only need to load routine, bundled DLL modules or Windows system DLLs such that deviation from known module loads may be suspicious. Limiting DLL module loads to <code>%SystemRoot%</code> and <code>%ProgramFiles%</code> directories will protect against module loads from unsafe paths.

Correlation of other events with behavior surrounding module loads using API monitoring and suspicious DLLs written to disk will provide additional context to an event that may assist in determining if it is due to malicious behavior.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Process Monitoring, API monitoring, File monitoring, DLL monitoring

Contributors: Stefan Kanthak

Table 178. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1129

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft%20Windows%20library%20files

Install Root Certificate

Root certificates are used in public key cryptography to identify a root certificate authority (CA). When a root certificate is installed, the system or application will trust certificates in the root’s chain of trust that have been signed by the root certificate.[[Citation: Wikipedia Root Certificate]] Certificates are commonly used for establishing secure TLS/SSL communications within a web browser. When a user attempts to browse a website that presents a certificate that is not trusted an error message will be displayed to warn the user of the security risk. Depending on the security settings, the browser may not allow the user to establish a connection to the website.

Installation of a root certificate on a compromised system would give an adversary a way to degrade the security of that system. Adversaries have used this technique to avoid security warnings prompting users when compromised systems connect over HTTPS to adversary controlled web servers that spoof legitimate websites in order to collect login credentials.[[Citation: Operation Emmental]]

Atypical root certificates have also been pre-installed on systems by the manufacturer or in the software supply chain and were used in conjunction with malware/adware to provide a man-in-the-middle capability for intercepting information transmitted over secure TLS/SSL communications.[[Citation: Kaspersky Superfish]]

Detection: A system’s root certificates are unlikely to change frequently. Monitor new certificates installed on a system that could be due to malicious activity. Check pre-installed certificates on new systems to ensure unnecessary or suspicious certificates are not present.

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1, Linux

Data Sources: SSL/TLS inspection, Digital Certificate Logs

Contributors: Itzik Kotler, SafeBreach

Table 179. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1130

https://usblog.kaspersky.com/superfish-adware-preinstalled-on-lenovo-laptops/5161/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Root%20certificate

http://www.trendmicro.com/cloud-content/us/pdfs/security-intelligence/white-papers/wp-finding-holes-operation-emmental.pdf

Data Transfer Size Limits

An adversary may exfiltrate data in fixed size chunks instead of whole files or limit packet sizes below certain thresholds. This approach may be used to avoid triggering network data transfer threshold alerts.

Detection: Analyze network data for uncommon data flows (e.g., a client sending significantly more data than it receives from a server). If a process maintains a long connection during which it consistently sends fixed size data packets or a process opens connections and sends fixed sized data packets at regular intervals, it may be performing an aggregate data transfer. Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Analyze packet contents to detect communications that do not follow the expected protocol behavior for the port that is being used.[[Citation: University of Birmingham C2]]

Platforms: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1

Data Sources: Packet capture, Netflow/Enclave netflow, Process use of network, Process monitoring

Table 180. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Technique/T1030

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1408/1408.1136.pdf

Course of Action

ATT&CK Mitigation.

Course of Action is a cluster galaxy available in JSON format at https://github.com/MISP/misp-galaxy/blob/master/clusters/course of action.json[this location] The JSON format can be freely reused in your application or automatically enabled in MISP.
authors

MITRE

Component Object Model Hijacking Mitigation

Direct mitigation of this technique may not be recommended for a particular environment since COM objects are a legitimate part of the operating system and installed software. Blocking COM object changes may have unforeseen side effects to legitimate functionality.

Instead, identify and block potentially malicious software that may execute, or be executed by, this technique using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Exfiltration Over Command and Control Channel Mitigation

Mitigations for command and control apply. Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and may be based on the specific obfuscation technique used by a particular adversary or tool, and will likely be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool command and control signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way to avoid detection by common defensive tools.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

DLL Injection Mitigation

Mitigating specific API calls will likely have unintended side effects, such as preventing legitimate software from operating properly. Efforts should be focused on preventing adversary tools from running earlier in the chain of activity and on identification of subsequent malicious behavior.

Identify or block potentially malicious software that may contain DLL injection functionality by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Bypass User Account Control Mitigation

Remove users from the local administrator group on systems. Although UAC bypass techniques exist, it is still prudent to use the highest enforcement level for UAC when possible and mitigate bypass opportunities that exist with techniques such as [[Technique/T1038|DLL Search Order Hijacking]].

Check for common UAC bypass weaknesses on Windows systems to be aware of the risk posture and address issues where appropriate.[[CiteRef::Github UACMe]]

Command-Line Interface Mitigation

Audit and/or block command-line interpreters by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

DLL Search Order Hijacking Mitigation

Use auditing tools capable of detecting DLL search order hijacking opportunities on systems within an enterprise and correct them. Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for DLL hijacking weaknesses.

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be executed through search order hijacking by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools like AppLocker[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] that are capable of auditing and/or blocking unknown DLLs.

Uncommonly Used Port Mitigation

Properly configure firewalls and proxies to limit outgoing traffic to only necessary ports.

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and may be based on the specific protocol used by a particular adversary or tool, and will likely be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool C2 signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way as to avoid detection by common defensive tools.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

Regsvcs/Regasm Mitigation

Regsvcs and Regasm may not be necessary within a given environment. Block execution of Regsvcs.exe and Regasm.exe if they are not required for a given system or network to prevent potential misuess by adversaries.

Application Deployment Software Mitigation

Grant access to application deployment systems only to a limited number of authorized administrators. Ensure proper system and access isolation for critical network systems through use of firewalls, account privilege separation, group policy, and multifactor authentication. Verify that account credentials that may be used to access deployment systems are unique and not used throughout the enterprise network. Patch deployment systems regularly to prevent potential remote access through [[Technique/T1068|Exploitation of Vulnerability]].

If the application deployment system can be configured to deploy only signed binaries, then ensure that the trusted signing certificates are not co-located with the application deployment system and are instead located on a system that cannot be accessed remotely or to which remote access is tightly controlled.

Commonly Used Port Mitigation

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and may be based on the specific protocol used by a particular adversary or tool, and will likely be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool C2 signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way as to avoid detection by common defensive tools.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

Windows Management Instrumentation Mitigation

Disabling WMI or RPCS may cause system instability and should be evaluated to assess the impact to a network. By default, only administrators are allowed to connect remotely using WMI. Restrict other users who are allowed to connect, or disallow all users to connect remotely to WMI. Prevent credential overlap across systems of administrator and privileged accounts.[[CiteRef::FireEye WMI 2015]]

Path Interception Mitigation

Eliminate path interception weaknesses in program configuration files, scripts, the PATH environment variable, services, and in shortcuts by surrounding PATH variables with quotation marks when functions allow for them[[CiteRef::Microsoft CreateProcess]]. Be aware of the search order Windows uses for executing or loading binaries and use fully qualified paths wherever appropriate[[CiteRef::MSDN DLL Security]]. Clean up old Windows Registry keys when software is uninstalled to avoid keys with no associated legitimate binaries.

Periodically search for and correct or report path interception weaknesses on systems that may have been introduced using custom or available tools that report software using insecure path configurations[[CiteRef::Kanthak Sentinel]].

Require that all executables be placed in write-protected directories. Ensure that proper permissions and directory access control are set to deny users the ability to write files to the top-level directory <code>C:</code> and system directories, such as <code>C:\Windows\</code>, to reduce places where malicious files could be placed for execution.

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be executed through the path interception by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies,[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] that are capable of auditing and/or blocking unknown executables.

Graphical User Interface Mitigation

Prevent adversaries from gaining access to credentials through [[Credential Access]] that can be used to log into remote desktop sessions on systems.

Identify unnecessary system utilities, third-party tools, or potentially malicious software that may be used to log into remote interactive sessions, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] and Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

NTFS Extended Attributes Mitigation

It may be difficult or inadvisable to block access to EA. Efforts should be focused on preventing potentially malicious software from running. Identify and block potentially malicious software that may contain functionality to hide information in EA by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools like AppLocker[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Indicator Removal from Tools Mitigation

Mitigation is difficult in instances like this because the adversary may have access to the system through another channel and can learn what techniques or tools are blocked by resident defenses. Exercising best practices with configuration and security as well as ensuring that proper process is followed during investigation of potential compromise is essential to detecting a larger intrusion through discrete alerts.

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be used by an adversary by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools like AppLocker[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Clipboard Data Mitigation

Instead of blocking software based on clipboard capture behavior, identify potentially malicious software that may contain this functionality, and audit and/or block it by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Registry Run Keys / Start Folder Mitigation

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be executed through run key or startup folder persistence using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools like AppLocker[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Multi-Stage Channels Mitigation

Command and control infrastructure used in a multi-stage channel may be blocked if known ahead of time. If unique signatures are present in the C2 traffic, they could also be used as the basis of identifying and blocking the channel.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

Data Staged Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to collect data from removable media, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Data from Removable Media Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to collect data from removable media, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Data from Network Shared Drive Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to collect data from a network share, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Credential Manipulation Mitigation

Use multifactor authentication. Follow guidelines to prevent or limit adversary access to [[Technique/T1078|Legitimate Credentials]].

Protect domain controllers by ensuring proper security configuration for critical servers. Configure access controls and firewalls to limit access to these systems. Do not allow domain administrator accounts to be used for day-to-day operations that may expose them to potential adversaries on unprivileged systems.

PowerShell Mitigation

It may be possible to remove PowerShell from systems when not needed, but a review should be performed to assess the impact to an environment, since it could be in use for many legitimate purposes and administrative functions. When PowerShell is necessary, restrict PowerShell execution policy to administrators and to only execute signed scripts. Be aware that there are methods of bypassing the PowerShell execution policy, depending on environment configuration.[[CiteRef::Netspi PowerShell Execution Policy Bypass]] Disable/restrict the WinRM Service to help prevent uses of PowerShell for remote execution.

System Information Discovery Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to acquire information about the operating system and underlying hardware, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Winlogon Helper DLL Mitigation

Upgrade the operating system to a newer version of Windows if using a version prior to Vista.

Limit the privileges of user accounts so that only authorized administrators can perform Winlogon helper changes.

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be executed through the Winlogon helper process by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools like AppLocker[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] that are capable of auditing and/or blocking unknown DLLs.

Netsh Helper DLL Mitigation

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may persist in this manner by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools capable of monitoring DLL loads by Windows utilities like AppLocker.[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]]

Network Share Connection Removal Mitigation

Follow best practices for mitigation of activity related to establishing [[Technique/T1077|Windows Admin Shares]].

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to leverage network shares, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Connection Proxy Mitigation

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and may be based on the specific C2 protocol used by a particular adversary or tool, and will likely be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool C2 signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way as to avoid detection by common defensive tools.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

Application Window Discovery Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to acquire information, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

External Remote Services Mitigation

Limit access to remote services through centrally managed concentrators such as VPNs and other managed remote access systems. Deny direct remote access to internal systems through uses of network proxies, gateways, and firewalls as appropriate. Use strong two-factor or multi-factor authentication for remote service accounts to mitigate an adversary’s ability to leverage stolen credentials, but be aware of [[Technique/T1111|Two-Factor Authentication Interception]] techniques for some two-factor authentication implementations.

Pass the Hash Mitigation

Monitor systems and domain logs for unusual credential logon activity. Prevent access to [[Technique/T1078|Legitimate Credentials]]. Apply patch KB2871997 to Windows 7 and higher systems to limit the default access of accounts in the local administrator group. Limit credential overlap across systems to prevent the damage of credential compromise and reduce the adversary’s ability to perform [[Lateral Movement]] between systems. Ensure that built-in and created local administrator accounts have complex, unique passwords. Do not allow a domain user to be in the local administrator group on multiple systems.

Account Discovery Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to acquire information about system and domain accounts, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

MSBuild Mitigation

MSBuild.exe may not be necessary within a given environment and should be removed if not used. Use application whitelisting configured to block MSBuild.exe to prevent potential misuse by adversaries.[[CiteRef::SubTee MSBuild]][[CiteRef::Exploit Monday Mitigate Device Guard Bypases]][[CiteRef::GitHub mattifestation DeviceGuardBypass]]

Pass the Ticket Mitigation

Monitor domains for unusual credential logons. Limit credential overlap across systems to prevent the damage of credential compromise. Ensure that local administrator accounts have complex, unique passwords. Do not allow a user to be a local administrator for multiple systems. Limit domain admin account permissions to domain controllers and limited servers. Delegate other admin functions to separate accounts.[[CiteRef::ADSecurity AD Kerberos Attacks]]

Attempt to identify and block unknown or malicious software that could be used to obtain Kerberos tickets and use them to authenticate by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

System Owner/User Discovery Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to acquire information about system users, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Credential Dumping Mitigation

Monitor/harden access to LSASS and SAM table with tools that allow process whitelisting. Limit credential overlap across systems to prevent lateral movement opportunities using [[Technique/T1078|Legitimate Credentials]] if passwords and hashes are obtained. Ensure that local administrator accounts have complex, unique passwords across all systems on the network. Do not put user or admin domain accounts in the local administrator groups across systems unless they are tightly controlled, as this is often equivalent to having a local administrator account with the same password on all systems. On Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2, enable Protected Process Light for LSA.[[CiteRef::Microsoft LSA]]

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be used to dump credentials by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

With Windows 10, Microsoft implemented new protections called Credential Guard to protect the LSA secrets that can be used to obtain credentials through forms of credential dumping. It is not implemented by default and has hardware requirements.[[CiteRef::TechNet Credential Guard]]

Regsvr32 Mitigation

Microsoft’s Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit (EMET) Attack Surface Reduction (ASR) feature can be used to block regsvr32.exe from being used to bypass whitelisting.[[CiteRef::Secure Host Baseline EMET]]

Process Hollowing Mitigation

Mitigating specific API calls will likely have unintended side effects, such as preventing legitimate software from operating properly. Efforts should be focused on preventing adversary tools from running earlier in the chain of activity and on identifying subsequent malicious behavior.

Although process hollowing may be used to evade certain types of defenses, it is still good practice to identify potentially malicious software that may be used to perform adversarial actions, including process hollowing, and audit and/or block it by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Execution through API Mitigation

Mitigating specific API calls will likely have unintended side effects, such as preventing legitimate software from operating properly. Efforts should be focused on preventing adversary tools from running earlier in the chain of activity and on identifying subsequent malicious behavior. Audit and/or block potentially malicious software by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Taint Shared Content Mitigation

Protect shared folders by minimizing users who have write access. Use utilities that detect or mitigate common features used in exploitation, such as the Microsoft Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit (EMET).

Identify potentially malicious software that may be used to taint content or may result from it and audit and/or block the unknown programs by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Redundant Access Mitigation

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be used as a remote access tool, and audit and/or block it by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and will be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way as to avoid detection by common defensive tools.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

Audio Capture Mitigation

Mitigating this technique specifically may be difficult as it requires fine-grained API control. Efforts should be focused on preventing unwanted or unknown code from executing on a system.

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be used to record audio by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

New Service Mitigation

Limit privileges of user accounts and remediate [[Privilege Escalation]] vectors so only authorized administrators can create new services.

Identify and block unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to create services by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Scripting Mitigation

Turn off unused features or restrict access to scripting engines such as VBScript or scriptable administration frameworks such as PowerShell.

Fallback Channels Mitigation

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and may be based on the specific protocol used by a particular adversary or tool, and will likely be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool C2 signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way as to avoid detection by common defensive tools.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

System Service Discovery Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to acquire information about services, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Indicator Removal on Host Mitigation

Automatically forward events to a log server or data repository to prevent conditions in which the adversary can locate and manipulate data on the local system. When possible, minimize time delay on event reporting to avoid prolonged storage on the local system. Protect generated event files that are stored locally with proper permissions and authentication. Obfuscate/encrypt event files locally and in transit to avoid giving feedback to an adversary.

Service Registry Permissions Weakness Mitigation

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be executed through service abuse by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools like AppLocker[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] that are capable of auditing and/or blocking unknown programs.

Timestomp Mitigation

Mitigation of timestomping specifically is likely difficult. Efforts should be focused on preventing potentially malicious software from running. Identify and block potentially malicious software that may contain functionality to perform timestomping by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools like AppLocker[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Local Network Configuration Discovery Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to acquire information about a system’s network configuration, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Execution through Module Load Mitigation

Directly mitigating module loads and API calls related to module loads will likely have unintended side effects, such as preventing legitimate software from operating properly. Efforts should be focused on preventing adversary tools from running earlier in the chain of activity and on identifying and correlated subsequent behavior to determine if it is the result of malicious activity.

Shared Webroot Mitigation

Networks that allow for open development and testing of Web content and allow users to set up their own Web servers on the enterprise network may be particularly vulnerable if the systems and Web servers are not properly secured to limit privileged account use, unauthenticated network share access, and network/system isolation.

Ensure proper permissions on directories that are accessible through a Web server. Disallow remote access to the webroot or other directories used to serve Web content. Disable execution on directories within the webroot. Ensure that permissions of the Web server process are only what is required by not using built-in accounts; instead, create specific accounts to limit unnecessary access or permissions overlap across multiple systems.

Scheduled Task Mitigation

Limit privileges of user accounts and remediate [[Privilege Escalation]] vectors so only authorized administrators can create scheduled tasks. Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for permission weaknesses in scheduled tasks that could be used to escalate privileges.

Identify and block unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to schedule tasks using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Binary Padding Mitigation

Identify potentially malicious software that may be executed from a padded or otherwise obfuscated binary, and audit and/or block it by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Network Sniffing Mitigation

Ensure that all wireless traffic is encrypted appropriately. Use Kerberos, SSL, and multifactor authentication wherever possible. Monitor switches and network for span port usage, ARP/DNS poisoning, and router reconfiguration.

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be used to sniff or analyze network traffic by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Data Encrypted Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities, third-party tools, or potentially malicious software that may be used to encrypt files, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Standard Cryptographic Protocol Mitigation

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Use of encryption protocols may make typical network-based C2 detection more difficult due to a reduced ability to signature the traffic. Prior knowledge of adversary C2 infrastructure may be useful for domain and IP address blocking, but will likely not be an effective long-term solution because adversaries can change infrastructure often.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

Multilayer Encryption Mitigation

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Use of encryption protocols may make typical network-based C2 detection more difficult due to a reduced ability to signature the traffic. Prior knowledge of adversary C2 infrastructure may be useful for domain and IP address blocking, but will likely not be an effective long-term solution because adversaries can change infrastructure often.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

Masquerading Mitigation

When creating security rules, avoid exclusions based on file name or file path. Require signed binaries. Use file system access controls to protect folders such as C:\Windows\System32. Use tools that restrict program execution via whitelisting by attributes other than file name.

Identify potentially malicious software that may look like a legitimate program based on name and location, and audit and/or block it by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools like AppLocker[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

File System Logical Offsets Mitigation

Identify potentially malicious software that may be used to access logical drives in this manner, and audit and/or block it by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Remote Services Mitigation

Limit the number of accounts that may use remote services. Use multifactor authentication where possible. Limit the permissions for accounts that are at higher risk of compromise; for example, configure SSH so users can only run specific programs. Prevent [[Credential Access]] techniques that may allow an adversary to acquire [[Technique/T1078|Legitimate Credentials]] that can be used by existing services.

File Deletion Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities, third-party tools, or potentially malicious software that may be used to delete files, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools like AppLocker[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Data Compressed Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities, third-party tools, or potentially malicious software that may be used to compress files, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

If network intrusion prevention or data loss prevention tools are set to block specific file types from leaving the network over unencrypted channels, then an adversary may move to an encrypted channel.

Authentication Package Mitigation

Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2 may make LSA run as a Protected Process Light (PPL) by setting the Registry key <code>HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\RunAsPPL</code>, which requires all DLLs loaded by LSA to be signed by Microsoft.[[CiteRef::Graeber 2014]][[CiteRef::Microsoft Configure LSA]]

Local Port Monitor Mitigation

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may persist in this manner by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools capable of monitoring DLL loads by processes running under SYSTEM permissions.

Accessibility Features Mitigation

To use this technique remotely, an adversary must use it in conjunction with RDP. Ensure that Network Level Authentication is enabled to force the remote desktop session to authenticate before the session is created and the login screen displayed. It is enabled by default on Windows Vista and later.[[CiteRef::TechNet RDP NLA]]

If possible, use a Remote Desktop Gateway to manage connections and security configuration of RDP within a network.[[CiteRef::TechNet RDP Gateway]]

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be executed by an adversary with this technique by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Bootkit Mitigation

Ensure proper permissions are in place to help prevent adversary access to privileged accounts necessary to perform this action. Use Trusted Platform Module technology and a secure or trusted boot process to prevent system integrity from being compromised.[[CiteRef::TCG Trusted Platform Module]][[CiteRef::TechNet Secure Boot Process]]

Legitimate Credentials Mitigation

Take measures to detect or prevent techniques such as [[Technique/T1003|Credential Dumping]] or installation of keyloggers to acquire credentials through [[Technique/T1056|Input Capture]]. Limit credential overlap across systems to prevent access if account credentials are obtained. Ensure that local administrator accounts have complex, unique passwords across all systems on the network. Do not put user or admin domain accounts in the local administrator groups across systems unless they are tightly controlled and use of accounts is segmented, as this is often equivalent to having a local administrator account with the same password on all systems. Audit domain and local accounts as well as their permission levels routinely to look for situations that could allow an adversary to gain wide access by obtaining credentials of a privileged account.[[CiteRef::TechNet Credential Theft]][[CiteRef::TechNet Least Privilege]]

Disabling Security Tools Mitigation

Ensure proper process, registry, and file permissions are in place to prevent adversaries from disabling or interfering with security services.

Query Registry Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to acquire information within the Registry, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Basic Input/Output System Mitigation

Prevent adversary access to privileged accounts or access necessary to perform this technique. Check the integrity of the existing BIOS to determine if it is vulnerable to modification. Patch the BIOS as necessary. Use Trusted Platform Module technology.[[CiteRef::TCG Trusted Platform Module]]

Multiband Communication Mitigation

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and may be based on the specific protocol used by a particular adversary or tool, and will likely be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool C2 signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way as to avoid detection by common defensive tools.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

Remote System Discovery Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to acquire information on remotely available systems, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

File and Directory Discovery Mitigation

File system activity is a common part of an operating system, so it is unlikely that mitigation would be appropriate for this technique. It may still be beneficial to identify and block unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

File System Permissions Weakness Mitigation

Use auditing tools capable of detecting file system permissions abuse opportunities on systems within an enterprise and correct them. Limit privileges of user accounts and groups so that only authorized administrators can interact with service changes and service binary target path locations. Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for service file system permissions weaknesses.

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be executed through abuse of file, directory, and service permissions by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] that are capable of auditing and/or blocking unknown programs. Deny execution from user directories such as file download directories and temp directories where able.[[CiteRef::Seclists Kanthak 7zip Installer]]

Turn off UAC’s privilege elevation for standard users and installer detection for all users by modifying registry key <code>[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System]</code>to automatically deny elevation requests, add: <code>"ConsentPromptBehaviorUser"=dword:00000000</code>; to disable installer detection, add: <code>"EnableInstallerDetection"=dword:00000000</code>.[[CiteRef::Seclists Kanthak 7zip Installer]]

Service Execution Mitigation

Ensure that permissions disallow services that run at a higher permissions level from being created or interacted with by a user with a lower permission level. Also ensure that high permission level service binaries cannot be replaced or modified by users with a lower permission level.

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to interact with Windows services, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Communication Through Removable Media Mitigation

Disable Autorun if it is unnecessary.[[CiteRef::Microsoft Disable Autorun]] Disallow or restrict removable media at an organizational policy level if they are not required for business operations.[[CiteRef::TechNet Removable Media Control]]

Two-Factor Authentication Interception Mitigation

Remove smart cards when not in use. Protect devices and services used to transmit and receive out-of-band codes.

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be used to intercept 2FA credentials on a system by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Standard Non-Application Layer Protocol Mitigation

Properly configure firewalls and proxies to limit outgoing traffic to only necessary ports and through proper network gateway systems.

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and may be based on the specific obfuscation technique used by a particular adversary or tool, and will likely be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool C2 signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way as to avoid detection by common defensive tools.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

Data Transfer Size Limits Mitigation

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary command and control infrastructure and malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and may be based on the specific obfuscation technique used by a particular adversary or tool, and will likely be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool command and control signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way to avoid detection by common defensive tools.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

AppInit DLLs Mitigation

Upgrade to Windows 8 or later and enable secure boot.

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be executed through AppInit DLLs by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] that are capable of auditing and/or blocking unknown DLLs.

InstallUtil Mitigation

InstallUtil may not be necessary within a given environment. Use application whitelisting configured to block execution of InstallUtil.exe if it is not required for a given system or network to prevent potential misuse by adversaries.

Shortcut Modification Mitigation

Identify and block unknown, potentially malicious software that may be executed through shortcut modification by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Custom Command and Control Protocol Mitigation

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and may be based on the specific protocol used by a particular adversary or tool, and will likely be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool C2 signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way as to avoid detection by common defensive tools.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

Automated Exfiltration Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities, scripts, or potentially malicious software that may be used to transfer data outside of a network, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Change Default File Association Mitigation

Direct mitigation of this technique is not recommended since it is a legitimate function that can be performed by users for software preferences. Follow Microsoft’s best practices for file associations.[[CiteRef::MSDN File Associations]]

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be executed by this technique using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Peripheral Device Discovery Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to acquire information about peripheral devices, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Standard Application Layer Protocol Mitigation

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and will be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way to avoid detection by common defensive tools.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

Input Capture Mitigation

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be used to acquire credentials or information from the user by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

In cases where this behavior is difficult to detect or mitigate, efforts can be made to lessen some of the impact that might result from an adversary acquiring credential information. It is also good practice to follow mitigation recommendations for adversary use of [[Technique/T1078|Legitimate Credentials]].

Security Support Provider Mitigation

Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2 may make LSA run as a Protected Process Light (PPL) by setting the Registry key <code>HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\RunAsPPL</code>, which requires all SSP DLLs to be signed by Microsoft.[[CiteRef::Graeber 2014]][[CiteRef::Microsoft Configure LSA]]

Process Discovery Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to acquire information about processes, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Replication Through Removable Media Mitigation

Disable Autorun if it is unnecessary.[[CiteRef::Microsoft Disable Autorun]] Disallow or restrict removable media at an organizational policy level if it is not required for business operations.[[CiteRef::TechNet Removable Media Control]]

Identify potentially malicious software that may be used to infect removable media or may result from tainted removable media, and audit and/or block it by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Scheduled Transfer Mitigation

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary command and control infrastructure and malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and may be based on the specific obfuscation technique used by a particular adversary or tool, and will likely be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool command and control signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way to avoid detection by common defensive tools.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

Hypervisor Mitigation

Prevent adversary access to privileged accounts necessary to install a hypervisor.

Automated Collection Mitigation

Encryption and off-system storage of sensitive information may be one way to mitigate collection of files, but may not stop an adversary from acquiring the information if an intrusion persists over a long period of time and the adversary is able to discover and access the data through other means. A keylogger installed on a system may be able to intercept passwords through [[Technique/T1056|Input Capture]] and be used to decrypt protected documents that an adversary may have collected. Strong passwords should be used to prevent offline cracking of encrypted documents through [[Technique/T1110|Brute Force]] techniques.

Identify unnecessary system utilities, third-party tools, or potentially malicious software that may be used to collect files and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Exfiltration Over Physical Medium Mitigation

Disable Autorun if it is unnecessary.[[CiteRef::Microsoft Disable Autorun]] Disallow or restrict removable media at an organizational policy level if they are not required for business operations.[[CiteRef::TechNet Removable Media Control]]

Data Encoding Mitigation

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and may be based on the specific obfuscation technique used by a particular adversary or tool, and will likely be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool C2 signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way as to avoid detection by common defensive tools.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

DLL Side-Loading Mitigation

Update software regularly. Install software in write-protected locations. Use the program sxstrace.exe that is included with Windows along with manual inspection to check manifest files for side-loading vulnerabilities in software.

Rootkit Mitigation

Identify potentially malicious software that may contain rootkit functionality, and audit and/or block it by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Modify Registry Mitigation

Identify and block unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to modify the Registry by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools like AppLocker[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

System Time Discovery Mitigation

Benign software uses legitimate processes to gather system time. Efforts should be focused on preventing unwanted or unknown code from executing on a system. Some common tools, such as net.exe, may be blocked by policy to prevent common ways of acquiring remote system time.

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to acquire system time information, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Local Network Connections Discovery Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to acquire information about network connections, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Screen Capture Mitigation

Blocking software based on screen capture functionality may be difficult, and there may be legitimate software that performs those actions. Instead, identify potentially malicious software that may have functionality to acquire screen captures, and audit and/or block it by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Windows Admin Shares Mitigation

Do not reuse local administrator account passwords across systems. Ensure password complexity and uniqueness such that the passwords cannot be cracked or guessed. Deny remote use of local admin credentials to log into systems. Do not allow domain user accounts to be in the local Administrators group multiple systems.

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to leverage SMB and the Windows admin shares, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Modify Existing Service Mitigation

Use auditing tools capable of detecting privilege and service abuse opportunities on systems within an enterprise and correct them. Limit privileges of user accounts and groups so that only authorized administrators can interact with service changes and service configurations. Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain the PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for [[Privilege Escalation]] weaknesses.

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be executed through service abuse by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools like AppLocker[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] that are capable of auditing and/or blocking unknown programs.

Third-party Software Mitigation

Evaluate the security of third-party software that could be used to deploy or execute programs. Ensure that access to management systems for deployment systems is limited, monitored, and secure. Have a strict approval policy for use of deployment systems.

Grant access to application deployment systems only to a limited number of authorized administrators. Ensure proper system and access isolation for critical network systems through use of firewalls, account privilege separation, group policy, and multifactor authentication. Verify that account credentials that may be used to access deployment systems are unique and not used throughout the enterprise network. Patch deployment systems regularly to prevent potential remote access through [[Technique/T1068|Exploitation of Vulnerability]].

If the application deployment system can be configured to deploy only signed binaries, then ensure that the trusted signing certificates are not co-located with the application deployment system and are instead located on a system that cannot be accessed remotely or to which remote access is tightly controlled.

Video Capture Mitigation

Mitigating this technique specifically may be difficult as it requires fine-grained API control. Efforts should be focused on preventing unwanted or unknown code from executing on a system.

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be used to capture video and images by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Install Root Certificate Mitigation

HTTP Public Key Pinning (HPKP) is one method to mitigate potential man-in-the-middle situations where and adversary uses a mis-issued or fraudulent certificate to intercept encrypted communications by enforcing use of an expected certificate.[[CiteRef::Wikipedia HPKP]]

Brute Force Mitigation

Set account lockout policies after a certain number of failed login attempts to prevent passwords from being guessed. Use multifactor authentication.

Email Collection Mitigation

Use of encryption provides an added layer of security to sensitive information sent over email. Encryption using public key cryptography requires the adversary to obtain the private certificate along with an encryption key to decrypt messages.

Use of two-factor authentication for public-facing webmail servers is also a recommended best practice to minimize the usefulness of user names and passwords to adversaries.

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to collect email data files or access the corporate email server, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Exploitation of Vulnerability Mitigation

Update software regularly by employing patch management for internal enterprise endpoints and servers. Develop a robust cyber threat intelligence capability to determine what types and levels of threat may use software exploits and 0-days against a particular organization. Make it difficult for adversaries to advance their operation through exploitation of undiscovered or unpatched vulnerabilities by using sandboxing, virtualization, and exploit prevention tools such as the Microsoft Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit.[[CiteRef::SRD EMET]]

Remote File Copy Mitigation

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware or unusual data transfer over known tools and protocols like FTP can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and may be based on the specific obfuscation technique used by a particular adversary or tool, and will likely be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool C2 signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way as to avoid detection by common defensive tools.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

Exfiltration Over Alternative Protocol Mitigation

Follow best practices for network firewall configurations to allow only necessary ports and traffic to enter and exit the network. For example, if services like FTP are not required for sending information outside of a network, then block FTP-related ports at the network perimeter. Enforce proxies and use dedicated servers for services such as DNS and only allow those systems to communicate over respective ports/protocols, instead of all systems within a network.[[CiteRef::TechNet Firewall Design]] These actions will help reduce command and control and exfiltration path opportunities.

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary command and control infrastructure and malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and may be based on the specific obfuscation technique used by a particular adversary or tool, and will likely be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool command and control signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way to avoid detection by common defensive tools.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

Remote Desktop Protocol Mitigation

Disable the RDP service if it is unnecessary, remove unnecessary accounts and groups from Remote Desktop Users groups, and enable firewall rules to block RDP traffic between network security zones. Audit the Remote Desktop Users group membership regularly. Remove the local Administrators group from the list of groups allowed to log in through RDP. Limit remote user permissions if remote access is necessary. Use remote desktop gateways and multifactor authentication for remote logins.[[CiteRef::Berkley Secure]]

Web Service Mitigation

Firewalls and Web proxies can be used to enforce external network communication policy. It may be difficult for an organization to block particular services because so many of them are commonly used during the course of business.

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and may be based on the specific protocol or encoded commands used by a particular adversary or tool, and will likely be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool C2 signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way as to avoid detection by common defensive tools.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

Network Service Scanning Mitigation

Use network intrusion detection/prevention systems to detect and prevent remote service scans. Ensure that unnecessary ports and services are closed and proper network segmentation is followed to protect critical servers and devices.

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to acquire information about services running on remote systems, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Windows Management Instrumentation Event Subscription Mitigation

Disabling WMI services may cause system instability and should be evaluated to assess the impact to a network. By default, only administrators are allowed to connect remotely using WMI; restrict other users that are allowed to connect, or disallow all users from connecting remotely to WMI. Prevent credential overlap across systems of administrator and privileged accounts.[[CiteRef::FireEye WMI 2015]]

Data from Local System Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to collect data from the local system, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Custom Cryptographic Protocol Mitigation

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Since the custom protocol used may not adhere to typical protocol standards, there may be opportunities to signature the traffic on a network level for detection. Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and may be based on the specific protocol used by a particular adversary or tool, and will likely be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool C2 signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way as to avoid detection by common defensive tools.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

Credentials in Files Mitigation

Establish an organizational policy that prohibits password storage in files. Ensure that developers and system administrators are aware of the risk associated with having plaintext passwords in software configuration files that may be left on endpoint systems or servers. Preemptively search for files containing passwords and remove when found. Restrict file shares to specific directories with access only to necessary users. Remove vulnerable Group Policy Preferences.[[CiteRef::Microsoft MS14-025]]

Permission Groups Discovery Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to acquire information about groups and permissions, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Logon Scripts Mitigation

Restrict write access to logon scripts to specific administrators. Prevent access to administrator accounts by mitigating [[Credential Access]] techniques and limiting account access and permissions of [[Technique/T1078|Legitimate Credentials]].

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be executed through logon script modification by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools like AppLocker[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] that are capable of auditing and/or blocking unknown programs.

Code Signing Mitigation

Process whitelisting and trusted publishers to verify authenticity of software can help prevent signed malicious or untrusted code from executing on a system.[[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]][[CiteRef::TechNet Trusted Publishers]][[CiteRef::Securelist Digital Certificates]]

Windows Remote Management Mitigation

Disable the WinRM service. If the service is necessary, lock down critical enclaves with separate WinRM infrastructure, accounts, and permissions. Follow WinRM best practices on configuration of authentication methods and use of host firewalls to restrict WinRM access to allow communication only to/from specific devices.[[CiteRef::NSA Spotting]]

Web Shell Mitigation

Ensure that externally facing Web servers are patched regularly to prevent adversary access through [[Technique/T1068|Exploitation of Vulnerability]] to gain remote code access or through file inclusion weaknesses that may allow adversaries to upload files or scripts that are automatically served as Web pages.

Audit account and group permissions to ensure that accounts used to manage servers do not overlap with accounts and permissions of users in the internal network that could be acquired through [[Credential Access]] and used to log into the Web server and plant a Web shell or pivot from the Web server into the internal network.[[CiteRef::US-CERT Alert TA15-314A Web Shells]]

Data Obfuscation Mitigation

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and may be based on the specific obfuscation technique used by a particular adversary or tool, and will likely be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool C2 signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way as to avoid detection by common defensive tools.[[CiteRef::University of Birmingham C2]]

Software Packing Mitigation

Ensure updated virus definitions. Create custom signatures for observed malware. Employ heuristic-based malware detection.

Identify and prevent execution of potentially malicious software that may have been packed by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools like AppLocker[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

Security Software Discovery Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to acquire information about local security software, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting[[CiteRef::Beechey 2010]] tools, like AppLocker,[[CiteRef::Windows Commands JPCERT]][[CiteRef::NSA MS AppLocker]] or Software Restriction Policies[[CiteRef::Corio 2008]] where appropriate.[[CiteRef::TechNet Applocker vs SRP]]

intrusion Set

Name of ATT&CK Group.

intrusion Set is a cluster galaxy available in JSON format at https://github.com/MISP/misp-galaxy/blob/master/clusters/intrusion set.json[this location] The JSON format can be freely reused in your application or automatically enabled in MISP.
authors

MITRE

Poseidon Group

Poseidon Group is a Portuguese-speaking threat group that has been active since at least 2005. The group has a history of using information exfiltrated from victims to blackmail victim companies into contracting the Poseidon Group as a security firm.[[Citation: Kaspersky Poseidon Group]]

Poseidon Group is also known as:

  • Poseidon Group

Table 181. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0033

https://securelist.com/blog/research/73673/poseidon-group-a-targeted-attack-boutique-specializing-in-global-cyber-espionage/

Group5

Group5 is a threat group with a suspected Iranian nexus, though this attribution is not definite. The group has targeted individuals connected to the Syrian opposition via spearphishing and watering holes, normally using Syrian and Iranian themes. Group5 has used two commonly available remote access tools (RATs), njRAT and NanoCore, as well as an Android RAT, DroidJack.[[Citation: Citizen Lab Group5]]

Group5 is also known as:

  • Group5

Table 182. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0043

https://citizenlab.org/2016/08/group5-syria/

PittyTiger

PittyTiger is a threat group believed to operate out of China that uses multiple different types of malware to maintain command and control.[[Citation: Bizeul 2014]][[Citation: Villeneuve 2014]]

PittyTiger is also known as:

  • PittyTiger

Table 183. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0011

http://blog.cassidiancybersecurity.com/post/2014/07/The-Eye-of-the-Tiger2

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2014/07/spy-of-the-tiger.html

admin@338

admin@338 is a China-based cyber threat group. It has previously used newsworthy events as lures to deliver malware and has primarily targeted organizations involved in financial, economic, and trade policy, typically using publicly available RATs such as PoisonIvy, as well as some non-public backdoors.[[Citation: FireEye admin@338]]

admin@338 is also known as:

  • admin@338

Table 184. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0018

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2015/11/china-based-threat.html

RTM

RTM is a cybercriminal group that has been active since at least 2015 and is primarily interested in users of remote banking systems in Russia and neighboring countries. The group uses a Trojan by the same name (RTM).[[Citation: ESET RTM Feb 2017]]

RTM is also known as:

  • RTM

Table 185. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0048

https://www.welivesecurity.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Read-The-Manual.pdf

APT16

APT16 is a China-based threat group that has launched spearphishing campaigns targeting Japanese and Taiwanese organizations.[[Citation: FireEye EPS Awakens Part 2]]

APT16 is also known as:

  • APT16

Table 186. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0023

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2015/12/the-eps-awakens-part-two.html

APT28

APT28 is a threat group that has been attributed to the Russian government.[[Citation: FireEye APT28]][[Citation: SecureWorks TG-4127]][[Citation: FireEye APT28 January 2017]][[Citation: GRIZZLY STEPPE JAR]] This group reportedly compromised the Democratic National Committee in April 2016.[[Citation: Crowdstrike DNC June 2016]]

APT28 is also known as:

  • APT28

  • Sednit

  • Sofacy

  • Pawn Storm

  • Fancy Bear

  • STRONTIUM

  • Tsar Team

  • Threat Group-4127

  • TG-4127

Table 187. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0007

https://www2.fireeye.com/rs/848-DID-242/images/APT28-Center-of-Storm-2017.pdf

https://www.crowdstrike.com/blog/bears-midst-intrusion-democratic-national-committee/

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/global/en/current-threats/pdfs/rpt-apt28.pdf

https://www.secureworks.com/research/threat-group-4127-targets-hillary-clinton-presidential-campaign

Winnti Group

Winnti Group is a threat group with Chinese origins that has been active since at least 2010. The group has heavily targeted the gaming industry, but it has also expanded the scope of its targeting. Though both this group and Axiom use the malware Winnti, the two groups appear to be distinct based on differences in reporting on the groups' TTPs and targeting.[[Citation: Kaspersky Winnti April 2013]][[Citation: Kaspersky Winnti June 2015]][[Citation: Novetta Winnti April 2015]]

Winnti Group is also known as:

  • Winnti Group

  • Blackfly

Table 188. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0044

http://www.novetta.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/novetta%20winntianalysis.pdf

https://kasperskycontenthub.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/43/vlpdfs/winnti-more-than-just-a-game-130410.pdf

https://securelist.com/blog/incidents/70991/games-are-over/

Deep Panda

Deep Panda is a suspected Chinese threat group known to target many industries, including government, defense, financial, and telecommunications.Deep Panda.Deep Panda also appears to be known as Black Vine based on the attribution of both group names to the Anthem intrusion.[[Citation: Symantec Black Vine]]

Deep Panda is also known as:

  • Deep Panda

  • Shell Crew

  • WebMasters

  • KungFu Kittens

  • PinkPanther

  • Black Vine

Table 189. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0009

http://blog.crowdstrike.com/deep-thought-chinese-targeting-national-security-think-tanks/

http://www.symantec.com/content/en/us/enterprise/media/security%20response/whitepapers/the-black-vine-cyberespionage-group.pdf

https://www.emc.com/collateral/white-papers/h12756-wp-shell-crew.pdf

https://www.threatconnect.com/the-anthem-hack-all-roads-lead-to-china/

Molerats

Molerats is a politically-motivated threat group that has been operating since 2012. The group’s victims have primarily been in the Middle East, Europe, and the United States.[[Citation: DustySky]][[Citation: DustySky2]]

Molerats is also known as:

  • Molerats

  • Gaza cybergang

  • Operation Molerats

Table 190. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0021

http://www.clearskysec.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Operation-DustySky2%20-6.2016%20TLP%20White.pdf

Strider

Strider is a threat group that has been active since at least 2011 and has targeted victims in Russia, China, Sweden, Belgium, Iran, and Rwanda.[[Citation: Symantec Strider Blog]][[Citation: Kaspersky ProjectSauron Blog]]

Strider is also known as:

  • Strider

  • ProjectSauron

Table 191. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0041

http://www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/strider-cyberespionage-group-turns-eye-sauron-targets

https://securelist.com/analysis/publications/75533/faq-the-projectsauron-apt/

Sandworm Team

Sandworm Team is a cyber espionage group that has operated since approximately 2009 and has been attributed to Russia.[[Citation: iSIGHT Sandworm 2014]] This group is also known as Quedagh.[[Citation: F-Secure BlackEnergy 2014]]

Sandworm Team is also known as:

  • Sandworm Team

  • Quedagh

Table 192. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0034

https://www.f-secure.com/documents/996508/1030745/blackenergy%20whitepaper.pdf

http://www.isightpartners.com/2014/10/cve-2014-4114/

FIN6

FIN6 is a cyber crime group that has stolen payment card data and sold it for profit on underground marketplaces. This group has aggressively targeted and compromised point of sale (PoS) systems in the hospitality and retail sectors.[[Citation: FireEye FIN6 April 2016]]

FIN6 is also known as:

  • FIN6

Table 193. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0037

https://www2.fireeye.com/rs/848-DID-242/images/rpt-fin6.pdf

Dust Storm

Dust Storm is a threat group that has targeted multiple industries in Japan, South Korea, the United States, Europe, and several Southeast Asian countries.[[Citation: Cylance Dust Storm]]

Dust Storm is also known as:

  • Dust Storm

Table 194. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0031

https://www.cylance.com/hubfs/2015%20cylance%20website/assets/operation-dust-storm/Op%20Dust%20Storm%20Report.pdf?t=1456259131512

Cleaver

Cleaver is a threat group that has been attributed to Iranian actors and is responsible for activity tracked as Operation Cleaver.[[Citation: Cylance Cleaver]] Strong circumstantial evidence suggests Cleaver is linked to Threat Group 2889 (TG-2889).[[Citation: Dell Threat Group 2889]]

Cleaver is also known as:

  • Cleaver

  • Threat Group 2889

  • TG-2889

Table 195. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0003

http://www.secureworks.com/cyber-threat-intelligence/threats/suspected-iran-based-hacker-group-creates-network-of-fake-linkedin-profiles/

http://www.cylance.com/assets/Cleaver/Cylance%20Operation%20Cleaver%20Report.pdf

APT12

APT12 is a threat group that has been attributed to China.[[Citation: Meyers Numbered Panda]] It is also known as DynCalc, IXESHE, and Numbered Panda.[[Citation: Moran 2014]][[Citation: Meyers Numbered Panda]]

APT12 is also known as:

  • APT12

  • IXESHE

  • DynCalc

  • Numbered Panda

Table 196. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0005

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2014/09/darwins-favorite-apt-group-2.html

http://www.crowdstrike.com/blog/whois-numbered-panda/

Moafee

Moafee is a threat group that appears to operate from the Guandong Province of China. Due to overlapping TTPs, including similar custom tools, Moafee is thought to have a direct or indirect relationship with the threat group DragonOK. .[[Citation: Haq 2014]]

Moafee is also known as:

  • Moafee

Table 197. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0002

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2014/09/the-path-to-mass-producing-cyber-attacks.html

Threat Group-3390

Threat Group-3390 is a Chinese threat group that has extensively used strategic Web compromises to target victims.[[Citation: Dell TG-3390]]

Threat Group-3390 is also known as:

  • Threat Group-3390

  • TG-3390

  • Emissary Panda

Table 198. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0027

http://www.secureworks.com/cyber-threat-intelligence/threats/threat-group-3390-targets-organizations-for-cyberespionage/

DragonOK

DragonOK is a threat group that has targeted Japanese organizations with phishing emails. Due to overlapping TTPs, including similar custom tools, DragonOK is thought to have a direct or indirect relationship with the threat group Moafee. [[Citation: Operation Quantum Entanglement]][[Citation: Symbiotic APT Groups]] It is known to use a variety of malware, including Sysget/HelloBridge, PlugX, PoisonIvy, FormerFirstRat, NFlog, and NewCT. [[Citation: New DragonOK]]

DragonOK is also known as:

  • DragonOK

Table 199. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0017

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/global/en/current-threats/pdfs/wp-operation-quantum-entanglement.pdf

https://dl.mandiant.com/EE/library/MIRcon2014/MIRcon%202014%20R&D%20Track%20Insight%20into%20Symbiotic%20APT.pdf

http://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2015/04/unit-42-identifies-new-dragonok-backdoor-malware-deployed-against-japanese-targets/

APT1

APT1 is a Chinese threat group that has been attributed to the 2nd Bureau of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) General Staff Department’s (GSD) 3rd Department, commonly known by its Military Unit Cover Designator (MUCD) as Unit 61398.[[Citation: Mandiant APT1]]

APT1 is also known as:

  • APT1

  • Comment Crew

  • Comment Group

  • Comment Panda

Table 200. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0006

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/services/pdfs/mandiant-apt1-report.pdf

Taidoor

Taidoor is a threat group that has operated since at least 2009 and has primarily targeted the Taiwanese government.[[Citation: TrendMicro Taidoor]]

Taidoor is also known as:

  • Taidoor

Table 201. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0015

http://www.trendmicro.com/cloud-content/us/pdfs/security-intelligence/white-papers/wp%20the%20taidoor%20campaign.pdf

Night Dragon

Night Dragon is a threat group that has conducted activity originating primarily in China.[[Citation: McAfee Night Dragon]]

Night Dragon is also known as:

  • Night Dragon

Table 202. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0014

http://www.mcafee.com/us/resources/white-papers/wp-global-energy-cyberattacks-night-dragon.pdf

Naikon

Naikon is a threat group that has focused on targets around the South China Sea.Naikon shares some characteristics with APT30, the two groups do not appear to be exact matches.[[Citation: Baumgartner Golovkin Naikon 2015]]

Naikon is also known as:

  • Naikon

Table 203. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0019

http://cdn2.hubspot.net/hubfs/454298/Project%20CAMERASHY%20ThreatConnect%20Copyright%202015.pdf

https://securelist.com/analysis/publications/69953/the-naikon-apt/

https://securelist.com/files/2015/05/TheNaikonAPT-MsnMM1.pdf

Ke3chang

Ke3chang is a threat group attributed to actors operating out of China.[[Citation: Villeneuve et al 2014]]

Ke3chang is also known as:

  • Ke3chang

Table 204. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0004

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/global/en/current-threats/pdfs/wp-operation-ke3chang.pdf

Patchwork

Patchwork is a threat group that was first observed in December 2015. While the group has not been definitively attributed, circumstantial evidence suggests the group may be a pro-Indian or Indian entity. Much of the code used by this group was copied and pasted from online forums.[[Citation: Cymmetria Patchwork]][[Citation: Symantec Patchwork]]

Patchwork is also known as:

  • Patchwork

  • Dropping Elephant

  • Chinastrats

Table 205. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0040

http://www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/patchwork-cyberespionage-group-expands-targets-governments-wide-range-industries

https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/cymmetria-blog/public/Unveiling%20Patchwork.pdf

APT30

APT30 is a threat group suspected to be associated with the Chinese government.Naikon shares some characteristics with APT30, the two groups do not appear to be exact matches.[[Citation: Baumgartner Golovkin Naikon 2015]]

APT30 is also known as:

  • APT30

Table 206. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0013

https://securelist.com/analysis/publications/69953/the-naikon-apt/

https://www2.fireeye.com/rs/fireye/images/rpt-apt30.pdf

MONSOON

MONSOON is the name of an espionage campaign that apparently started in December 2015 and was ongoing as of July 2016. It is believed that the actors behind MONSOON are the same actors behind Operation Hangover. While attribution is unclear, the campaign has targeted victims with military and political interests in the Indian Subcontinent.[[Citation: Forcepoint Monsoon]] Operation Hangover has been reported as being Indian in origin, and can be traced back to 2010.[[Citation: Operation Hangover May 2013]]

MONSOON is also known as:

  • MONSOON

  • Operation Hangover

Table 207. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0042

https://www.forcepoint.com/sites/default/files/resources/files/forcepoint-security-labs-monsoon-analysis-report.pdf

http://enterprise-manage.norman.c.bitbit.net/resources/files/Unveiling%20an%20Indian%20Cyberattack%20Infrastructure.pdf

APT17

APT17 is a China-based threat group that has conducted network intrusions against U.S. government entities, the defense industry, law firms, information technology companies, mining companies, and non-government organizations.[[Citation: FireEye APT17]]

APT17 is also known as:

  • APT17

  • Deputy Dog

Table 208. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0025

https://www2.fireeye.com/rs/fireye/images/APT17%20Report.pdf

FIN7

FIN7 is a financially motivated threat group that has primarily targeted the retail and hospitality sectors, often using point-of-sale malware.[[Citation: FireEye FIN7 March 2017]]

FIN7 is also known as:

  • FIN7

Table 209. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0046

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2017/03/fin7%20spear%20phishing.html

APT3

APT3 is a China-based threat group.[[Citation: FireEye Clandestine Wolf]] This group is responsible for the campaigns known as Operation Clandestine Fox, Operation Clandestine Wolf, and Operation Double Tap.[[Citation: FireEye Clandestine Wolf]][[Citation: FireEye Operation Double Tap]] As of June 2015, the group appears to have shifted from targeting primarily US victims to primarily political organizations in Hong Kong.[[Citation: Symantec Buckeye]]

APT3 is also known as:

  • APT3

  • Gothic Panda

  • Pirpi

  • UPS Team

  • Buckeye

  • Threat Group-0110

  • TG-0110

Table 210. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0022

http://www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/buckeye-cyberespionage-group-shifts-gaze-us-hong-kong

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2015/06/operation-clandestine-wolf-adobe-flash-zero-day.html

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2014/11/operation%20doubletap.html

GCMAN

GCMAN is a threat group that focuses on targeting banks for the purpose of transferring money to e-currency services.[[Citation: Securelist GCMAN]]

GCMAN is also known as:

  • GCMAN

Table 211. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0036

https://securelist.com/blog/research/73638/apt-style-bank-robberies-increase-with-metel-gcman-and-carbanak-2-0-attacks/

Lazarus Group

Lazarus Group is a threat group that has been active since at least 2009 and was reportedly responsible for the November 2014 destructive wiper attack against Sony Pictures Entertainment. It was responsible for a campaign known as Operation Blockbuster. Malware used by Lazarus Group correlates to other reported campaigns, including Operation Flame, Operation 1Mission, Operation Troy, DarkSeoul, and Ten Days of Rain.[[Citation: Novetta Blockbuster]]

Lazarus Group is also known as:

  • Lazarus Group

Table 212. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0032

https://www.operationblockbuster.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Operation-Blockbuster-Report.pdf

Lotus Blossom

Lotus Blossom is threat group that has targeted government and military organizations in Southeast Asia.[[Citation: Lotus Blossom Jun 2015]] It is also known as Spring Dragon.[[Citation: Spring Dragon Jun 2015]]

Lotus Blossom is also known as:

  • Lotus Blossom

  • Spring Dragon

Table 213. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0030

https://securelist.com/blog/research/70726/the-spring-dragon-apt/

https://www.paloaltonetworks.com/resources/research/unit42-operation-lotus-blossom.html

Equation

Equation is a sophisticated threat group that employs multiple remote access tools. The group is known to use zero-day exploits and has developed the capability to overwrite the firmware of hard disk drives.[[Citation: Kaspersky Equation QA]]

Equation is also known as:

  • Equation

Table 214. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0020

https://securelist.com/files/2015/02/Equation%20group%20questions%20and%20answers.pdf

Darkhotel

Darkhotel is a threat group that has been active since at least 2004. The group has conducted activity on hotel and business center Wi‑Fi and physical connections as well as peer-to-peer and file sharing networks. The actors have also conducted spearphishing.[[Citation: Kaspersky Darkhotel]]

Darkhotel is also known as:

  • Darkhotel

Table 215. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0012

https://securelist.com/files/2014/11/darkhotel%20kl%2007.11.pdf

Dragonfly

Dragonfly is a cyber espionage group that has been active since at least 2011. They initially targeted defense and aviation companies but shifted to focus on the energy sector in early 2013. They have also targeted companies related to industrial control systems.[[Citation: Symantec Dragonfly]]

Dragonfly is also known as:

  • Dragonfly

  • Energetic Bear

Table 216. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0035

http://www.symantec.com/content/en/us/enterprise/media/security%20response/whitepapers/Dragonfly%20Threat%20Against%20Western%20Energy%20Suppliers.pdf

Suckfly

Suckfly is a China-based threat group that has been active since at least 2014.[[Citation: Symantec Suckfly March 2016]]

Suckfly is also known as:

  • Suckfly

Table 217. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0039

http://www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/suckfly-revealing-secret-life-your-code-signing-certificates

Stealth Falcon

Stealth Falcon is a threat group that has conducted targeted spyware attacks against Emirati journalists, activists, and dissidents since at least 2012. Circumstantial evidence suggests there could be a link between this group and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) government, but that has not been confirmed.[[Citation: Citizen Lab Stealth Falcon May 2016]]

Stealth Falcon is also known as:

  • Stealth Falcon

Table 218. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0038

https://citizenlab.org/2016/05/stealth-falcon/

Scarlet Mimic

Scarlet Mimic is a threat group that has targeted minority rights activists. This group has not been directly linked to a government source, but the group’s motivations appear to overlap with those of the Chinese government. While there is some overlap between IP addresses used by Scarlet Mimic and Putter Panda, it has not been concluded that the groups are the same.[[Citation: Scarlet Mimic Jan 2016]]

Scarlet Mimic is also known as:

  • Scarlet Mimic

Table 219. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0029

http://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2016/01/scarlet-mimic-years-long-espionage-targets-minority-activists/

Threat Group-1314

Threat Group-1314 is an unattributed threat group that has used compromised credentials to log into a victim’s remote access infrastructure.[[Citation: Dell TG-1314]]

Threat Group-1314 is also known as:

  • Threat Group-1314

  • TG-1314

Table 220. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0028

http://www.secureworks.com/resources/blog/living-off-the-land/

Turla

Turla is a threat group that has infected victims in over 45 countries, spanning a range of industries including government, embassies, military, education, research and pharmaceutical companies.[[Citation: Kaspersky Turla]]

Turla is also known as:

  • Turla

  • Waterbug

Table 221. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0010

https://securelist.com/analysis/publications/65545/the-epic-turla-operation/

APT29

APT29 is threat group that has been attributed to the Russian government and has operated since at least 2008.[[Citation: F-Secure The Dukes]][[Citation: GRIZZLY STEPPE JAR]] This group reportedly compromised the Democratic National Committee starting in the summer of 2015.[[Citation: Crowdstrike DNC June 2016]]

APT29 is also known as:

  • APT29

  • The Dukes

  • Cozy Bear

Table 222. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0016

https://www.f-secure.com/documents/996508/1030745/dukes%20whitepaper.pdf

https://www.crowdstrike.com/blog/bears-midst-intrusion-democratic-national-committee/

menuPass

menuPass is a threat group that appears to originate from China and has been active since approximately 2009. The group has targeted healthcare, defense, aerospace, and government sectors, and has targeted Japanese victims since at least 2014.[[Citation: Palo Alto menuPass Feb 2017]][[Citation: Crowdstrike CrowdCast Oct 2013]][[Citation: FireEye Poison Ivy]]

menuPass is also known as:

  • menuPass

  • Stone Panda

  • APT10

Table 223. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0045

https://www.slideshare.net/CrowdStrike/crowd-casts-monthly-you-have-an-adversary-problem

http://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2017/02/unit42-menupass-returns-new-malware-new-attacks-japanese-academics-organizations/

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/global/en/current-threats/pdfs/rpt-poison-ivy.pdf

Putter Panda

Putter Panda is a Chinese threat group that has been attributed to Unit 61486 of the 12th Bureau of the PLA’s 3rd General Staff Department (GSD).[[Citation: CrowdStrike Putter Panda]]

Putter Panda is also known as:

  • Putter Panda

  • APT2

  • MSUpdater

Table 224. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0024

http://cdn0.vox-cdn.com/assets/4589853/crowdstrike-intelligence-report-putter-panda.original.pdf

Axiom

Axiom is a cyber espionage group suspected to be associated with the Chinese government.Winnti Group use the malware Winnti, the two groups appear to be distinct based on differences in reporting on the groups' TTPs and targeting.[[Citation: Kaspersky Winnti April 2013]][[Citation: Kaspersky Winnti June 2015]][[Citation: Novetta Winnti April 2015]]

Axiom is also known as:

  • Axiom

  • Group 72

Table 225. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0001

http://www.novetta.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Executive%20Summary-Final%201.pdf

http://www.novetta.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/novetta%20winntianalysis.pdf

https://kasperskycontenthub.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/43/vlpdfs/winnti-more-than-just-a-game-130410.pdf

https://securelist.com/blog/incidents/70991/games-are-over/

Carbanak

Carbanak is a threat group that mainly targets banks. It also refers to malware of the same name (Carbanak).[[Citation: Kaspersky Carbanak]]

Carbanak is also known as:

  • Carbanak

  • Anunak

Table 226. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0008

https://securelist.com/files/2015/02/Carbanak%20APT%20eng.pdf

APT18

APT18 is a threat group that has operated since at least 2009 and has targeted a range of industries, including technology, manufacturing, human rights groups, government, and medical.[[Citation: Dell Lateral Movement]]

APT18 is also known as:

  • APT18

  • Threat Group-0416

  • TG-0416

  • Dynamite Panda

Table 227. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0026

http://www.secureworks.com/resources/blog/where-you-at-indicators-of-lateral-movement-using-at-exe-on-windows-7-systems/

Gamaredon Group

Gamaredon Group is a threat group that has been active since at least 2013 and has targeted individuals likely involved in the Ukrainian government.[[Citation: Palo Alto Gamaredon Feb 2017]]

Gamaredon Group is also known as:

  • Gamaredon Group

Table 228. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Group/G0047

https://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2017/02/unit-42-title-gamaredon-group-toolset-evolution/

Malware

Name of ATT&CK software.

Malware is a cluster galaxy available in JSON format at this location The JSON format can be freely reused in your application or automatically enabled in MISP.
authors

MITRE

OLDBAIT

OLDBAIT is a credential harvester used by APT28.[[Citation: FireEye APT28]][[Citation: FireEye APT28 January 2017]]

Aliases: OLDBAIT, Sasfis

OLDBAIT is also known as:

  • OLDBAIT

  • Sasfis

Table 229. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0138

https://www2.fireeye.com/rs/848-DID-242/images/APT28-Center-of-Storm-2017.pdf

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/global/en/current-threats/pdfs/rpt-apt28.pdf

CosmicDuke

CosmicDuke is malware that was used by APT29 from 2010 to 2015.[[Citation: F-Secure The Dukes]]

Aliases: CosmicDuke, TinyBaron, BotgenStudios, NemesisGemina

CosmicDuke is also known as:

  • CosmicDuke

  • TinyBaron

  • BotgenStudios

  • NemesisGemina

Table 230. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0050

https://www.f-secure.com/documents/996508/1030745/dukes%20whitepaper.pdf

H1N1

H1N1 is a malware variant that has been distributed via a campaign using VBA macros to infect victims. Although it initially had only loader capabilities, it has evolved to include information-stealing functionality.[[Citation: Cisco H1N1 Part 1]]

Table 231. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0132

http://blogs.cisco.com/security/h1n1-technical-analysis-reveals-new-capabilities

SPACESHIP

SPACESHIP is malware developed by APT30 that allows propagation and exfiltration of data over removable devices. APT30 may use this capability to exfiltrate data across air-gaps.[[Citation: FireEye APT30]]

Table 232. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0035

https://www2.fireeye.com/rs/fireye/images/rpt-apt30.pdf

Hi-Zor

Hi-Zor is a remote access tool (RAT) that has characteristics similar to Sakula. It was used in a campaign named INOCNATION.[[Citation: Fidelis Hi-Zor]]

Table 233. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0087

http://www.threatgeek.com/2016/01/introducing-hi-zor-rat.html

TEXTMATE

TEXTMATE is a second-stage PowerShell backdoor that is memory-resident. It was observed being used along with POWERSOURCE in February 2017.[[Citation: FireEye FIN7 March 2017]]

Aliases: TEXTMATE, DNSMessenger

TEXTMATE is also known as:

  • TEXTMATE

  • DNSMessenger

Table 234. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0146

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2017/03/fin7%20spear%20phishing.html

Net Crawler

Net Crawler is an intranet worm capable of extracting credentials using credential dumpers and spreading to systems on a network over SMB by brute forcing accounts with recovered passwords and using PsExec to execute a copy of Net Crawler.[[Citation: Cylance Cleaver]]

Aliases: Net Crawler, NetC

Net Crawler is also known as:

  • Net Crawler

  • NetC

Table 235. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0056

http://www.cylance.com/assets/Cleaver/Cylance%20Operation%20Cleaver%20Report.pdf

BlackEnergy

BlackEnergy is a malware toolkit that has been used by both criminal and APT actors. It dates back to at least 2007 and was originally designed to create botnets for use in conducting Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, but its use has evolved to support various plug-ins. It is well known for being used during the confrontation between Georgia and Russia in 2008, as well as in targeting Ukrainian institutions. Variants include BlackEnergy 2 and BlackEnergy 3.[[Citation: F-Secure BlackEnergy 2014]]

Aliases: BlackEnergy, Black Energy

BlackEnergy is also known as:

  • BlackEnergy

  • Black Energy

Table 236. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0089

https://www.f-secure.com/documents/996508/1030745/blackenergy%20whitepaper.pdf

Pisloader

Pisloader is a malware family that is notable due to its use of DNS as a C2 protocol as well as its use of anti-analysis tactics. It has been used by APT18 and is similar to another malware family, HTTPBrowser, that has been used by the group.[[Citation: Palo Alto DNS Requests]]

Table 237. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0124

http://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2016/05/unit42-new-wekby-attacks-use-dns-requests-as-command-and-control-mechanism/

Backdoor.Oldrea

Backdoor.Oldrea is a backdoor used by Dragonfly. It appears to be custom malware authored by the group or specifically for it.[[Citation: Symantec Dragonfly]]

Aliases: Backdoor.Oldrea, Havex

Backdoor.Oldrea is also known as:

  • Backdoor.Oldrea

  • Havex

Table 238. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0093

http://www.symantec.com/content/en/us/enterprise/media/security%20response/whitepapers/Dragonfly%20Threat%20Against%20Western%20Energy%20Suppliers.pdf

ChChes

ChChes is a Trojan that appears to be used exclusively by menuPass. It was used to target Japanese organizations in 2016. Its lack of persistence methods suggests it may be intended as a first-stage tool.[[Citation: Palo Alto menuPass Feb 2017]][[Citation: JPCERT ChChes Feb 2017]]

Table 239. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0144

http://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2017/02/unit42-menupass-returns-new-malware-new-attacks-japanese-academics-organizations/

http://blog.jpcert.or.jp/2017/02/chches-malware—​93d6.html

Hacking Team UEFI Rootkit

Hacking Team UEFI Rootkit is a rootkit developed by the company Hacking Team as a method of persistence for remote access software.[[Citation: TrendMicro Hacking Team UEFI]]

Table 240. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0047

http://blog.trendmicro.com/trendlabs-security-intelligence/hacking-team-uses-uefi-bios-rootkit-to-keep-rcs-9-agent-in-target-systems/

httpclient

httpclient is malware used by Putter Panda. It is a simple tool that provides a limited range of functionality, suggesting it is likely used as a second-stage or supplementary/backup tool.[[Citation: CrowdStrike Putter Panda]]

Table 241. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0068

http://cdn0.vox-cdn.com/assets/4589853/crowdstrike-intelligence-report-putter-panda.original.pdf

Downdelph

Downdelph is a first-stage downloader written in Delphi that has been used by APT28 in rare instances between 2013 and 2015.[[Citation: ESET Sednit Part 3]]

Aliases: Downdelph, Delphacy

Downdelph is also known as:

  • Downdelph

  • Delphacy

Table 242. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0134

http://www.welivesecurity.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/eset-sednit-part3.pdf

StreamEx

StreamEx is a malware family that has been used by Deep Panda since at least 2015. In 2016, it was distributed via legitimate compromised Korean websites.[[Citation: Cylance Shell Crew Feb 2017]]

Table 243. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0142

https://www.cylance.com/shell-crew-variants-continue-to-fly-under-big-avs-radar

Psylo

Psylo is a shellcode-based Trojan that has been used by Scarlet Mimic. It has similar characteristics as FakeM.[[Citation: Scarlet Mimic Jan 2016]]

Table 244. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0078

http://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2016/01/scarlet-mimic-years-long-espionage-targets-minority-activists/

HDoor

HDoor is malware that has been customized and used by the Naikon group.[[Citation: Baumgartner Naikon 2015]]

Aliases: HDoor, Custom HDoor

HDoor is also known as:

  • HDoor

  • Custom HDoor

Table 245. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0061

https://securelist.com/files/2015/05/TheNaikonAPT-MsnMM1.pdf

TinyZBot

TinyZBot is a bot written in C# that was developed by Cleaver.[[Citation: Cylance Cleaver]]

Table 246. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0004

http://www.cylance.com/assets/Cleaver/Cylance%20Operation%20Cleaver%20Report.pdf

BACKSPACE

BACKSPACE is a backdoor used by APT30 that dates back to at least 2005.[[Citation: FireEye APT30]]

Aliases: BACKSPACE, Lecna

BACKSPACE is also known as:

  • BACKSPACE

  • Lecna

Table 247. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0031

https://www2.fireeye.com/rs/fireye/images/rpt-apt30.pdf

PinchDuke

PinchDuke is malware that was used by APT29 from 2008 to 2010.[[Citation: F-Secure The Dukes]]

Table 248. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0048

https://www.f-secure.com/documents/996508/1030745/dukes%20whitepaper.pdf

CloudDuke

CloudDuke is malware that was used by APT29 in 2015.[[Citation: F-Secure The Dukes]]

Aliases: CloudDuke, MiniDionis, CloudLook

CloudDuke is also known as:

  • CloudDuke

  • MiniDionis

  • CloudLook

Table 249. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0054

https://www.f-secure.com/documents/996508/1030745/dukes%20whitepaper.pdf

WinMM

WinMM is a full-featured, simple backdoor used by Naikon.[[Citation: Baumgartner Naikon 2015]]

Table 250. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0059

https://securelist.com/files/2015/05/TheNaikonAPT-MsnMM1.pdf

MobileOrder

MobileOrder is a Trojan intended to compromise Android mobile devices. It has been used by Scarlet Mimic.[[Citation: Scarlet Mimic Jan 2016]]

Table 251. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0079

http://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2016/01/scarlet-mimic-years-long-espionage-targets-minority-activists/

Sys10

Sys10 is a backdoor that was used throughout 2013 by Naikon.[[Citation: Baumgartner Naikon 2015]]

Table 252. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0060

https://securelist.com/files/2015/05/TheNaikonAPT-MsnMM1.pdf

Duqu

Duqu is a malware platform that uses a modular approach to extend functionality after deployment within a target network.[[Citation: Symantec W32.Duqu]]

Table 253. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0038

https://www.symantec.com/content/en/us/enterprise/media/security%20response/whitepapers/w32%20duqu%20the%20precursor%20to%20the%20next%20stuxnet.pdf

FakeM

FakeM is a shellcode-based Windows backdoor that has been used by Scarlet Mimic.[[Citation: Scarlet Mimic Jan 2016]]

Table 254. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0076

http://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2016/01/scarlet-mimic-years-long-espionage-targets-minority-activists/

SHIPSHAPE

SHIPSHAPE is malware developed by APT30 that allows propagation and exfiltration of data over removable devices. APT30 may use this capability to exfiltrate data across air-gaps.[[Citation: FireEye APT30]]

Table 255. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0028

https://www2.fireeye.com/rs/fireye/images/rpt-apt30.pdf

T9000

T9000 is a backdoor that is a newer variant of the T5000 malware family, also known as Plat1. Its primary function is to gather information about the victim. It has been used in multiple targeted attacks against U.S.-based organizations.[[Citation: FireEye admin@338 March 2014]][[Citation: Palo Alto T9000 Feb 2016]]

Table 256. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0098

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2014/03/spear-phishing-the-news-cycle-apt-actors-leverage-interest-in-the-disappearance-of-malaysian-flight-mh-370.html

http://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2016/02/t9000-advanced-modular-backdoor-uses-complex-anti-analysis-techniques/

BS2005

BS2005 is malware that was used by Ke3chang in spearphishing campaigns since at least 2011.[[Citation: Villeneuve et al 2014]]

Table 257. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0014

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/global/en/current-threats/pdfs/wp-operation-ke3chang.pdf

WEBC2

WEBC2 is a backdoor used by APT1 to retrieve a Web page from a predetermined C2 server.[[Citation: Mandiant APT1 Appendix]]

Table 258. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0109

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/services/pdfs/mandiant-apt1-report-appendix.zip

PlugX

PlugX is a remote access tool (RAT) that uses modular plugins.[[Citation: Lastline PlugX Analysis]] It has been used by multiple threat groups.[[Citation: FireEye Clandestine Fox Part 2]][[Citation: New DragonOK]][[Citation: Dell TG-3390]]

Aliases: PlugX, Sogu, Kaba

PlugX is also known as:

  • PlugX

  • Sogu

  • Kaba

Table 259. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0013

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2014/06/clandestine-fox-part-deux.html

http://www.secureworks.com/cyber-threat-intelligence/threats/threat-group-3390-targets-organizations-for-cyberespionage/

http://labs.lastline.com/an-analysis-of-plugx

http://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2015/04/unit-42-identifies-new-dragonok-backdoor-malware-deployed-against-japanese-targets/

Misdat

Misdat is a backdoor that was used by Dust Storm from 2010 to 2011.[[Citation: Cylance Dust Storm]]

Table 260. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0083

https://www.cylance.com/hubfs/2015%20cylance%20website/assets/operation-dust-storm/Op%20Dust%20Storm%20Report.pdf?t=1456259131512

Taidoor

Taidoor is malware that has been used since at least 2010, primarily to target Taiwanese government organizations.[[Citation: TrendMicro Taidoor]]

Table 261. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0011

http://www.trendmicro.com/cloud-content/us/pdfs/security-intelligence/white-papers/wp%20the%20taidoor%20campaign.pdf

MoonWind

MoonWind is a remote access tool (RAT) that was used in 2016 to target organizations in Thailand.[[Citation: Palo Alto MoonWind March 2017]]

Table 262. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0149

http://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2017/03/unit42-trochilus-rat-new-moonwind-rat-used-attack-thai-utility-organizations/

Crimson

Crimson is malware used as part of a campaign known as Operation Transparent Tribe that targeted Indian diplomatic and military victims.[[Citation: Proofpoint Operation Transparent Tribe March 2016]]

Aliases: Crimson, MSIL/Crimson

Crimson is also known as:

  • Crimson

  • MSIL/Crimson

Table 263. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0115

https://www.proofpoint.com/sites/default/files/proofpoint-operation-transparent-tribe-threat-insight-en.pdf

Rover

Rover is malware suspected of being used for espionage purposes. It was used in 2015 in a targeted email sent to an Indian Ambassador to Afghanistan.[[Citation: Palo Alto Rover]]

Table 264. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0090

http://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2016/02/new-malware-rover-targets-indian-ambassador-to-afghanistan/

ZLib

ZLib is a full-featured backdoor that was used as a second-stage implant by Dust Storm from 2014 to 2015. It is malware and should not be confused with the compression library from which its name is derived.[[Citation: Cylance Dust Storm]]

Table 265. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0086

https://www.cylance.com/hubfs/2015%20cylance%20website/assets/operation-dust-storm/Op%20Dust%20Storm%20Report.pdf?t=1456259131512

PowerDuke

PowerDuke is a backdoor that was used by APT29 in 2016. It has primarily been delivered through Microsoft Word or Excel attachments containing malicious macros.[[Citation: Volexity PowerDuke November 2016]]

Table 266. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0139

https://www.volexity.com/blog/2016/11/09/powerduke-post-election-spear-phishing-campaigns-targeting-think-tanks-and-ngos/

HTTPBrowser

HTTPBrowser is malware that has been used by several threat groups.[[Citation: ThreatStream Evasion Analysis]][[Citation: Dell TG-3390]] It is believed to be of Chinese origin.[[Citation: ThreatConnect Anthem]]

Aliases: HTTPBrowser, Token Control, HttpDump

HTTPBrowser is also known as:

  • HTTPBrowser

  • Token Control

  • HttpDump

Table 267. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0070

https://www.threatstream.com/blog/evasive-maneuvers-the-wekby-group-attempts-to-evade-analysis-via-custom-rop

http://www.secureworks.com/cyber-threat-intelligence/threats/threat-group-3390-targets-organizations-for-cyberespionage/

https://www.threatconnect.com/the-anthem-hack-all-roads-lead-to-china/

HAMMERTOSS

HAMMERTOSS is a backdoor that was used by APT29 in 2015.[[Citation: FireEye APT29]][[Citation: F-Secure The Dukes]]

Aliases: HAMMERTOSS, HammerDuke, NetDuke

HAMMERTOSS is also known as:

  • HAMMERTOSS

  • HammerDuke

  • NetDuke

Table 268. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0037

https://www2.fireeye.com/rs/848-DID-242/images/rpt-apt29-hammertoss.pdf

https://www.f-secure.com/documents/996508/1030745/dukes%20whitepaper.pdf

PoisonIvy

PoisonIvy is a popular remote access tool (RAT) that has been used by many groups.[[Citation: FireEye Poison Ivy]]

Aliases: PoisonIvy, Poison Ivy

PoisonIvy is also known as:

  • PoisonIvy

  • Poison Ivy

Table 269. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0012

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/global/en/current-threats/pdfs/rpt-poison-ivy.pdf

Carbanak

Carbanak is a remote backdoor used by a group of the same name (Carbanak). It is intended for espionage, data exfiltration, and providing remote access to infected machines.[[Citation: Kaspersky Carbanak]]

Aliases: Carbanak, Anunak

Carbanak is also known as:

  • Carbanak

  • Anunak

Table 270. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0030

https://securelist.com/files/2015/02/Carbanak%20APT%20eng.pdf

Ixeshe

Ixeshe is a malware family that has been used since 2009 to attack targets in East Asia.[[Citation: Moran 2013]]

Table 271. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0015

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2013/08/survival-of-the-fittest-new-york-times-attackers-evolve-quickly.html

BADNEWS

BADNEWS is malware that has been used by the actors responsible for the MONSOON campaign. Its name was given due to its use of RSS feeds, forums, and blogs for command and control.[[Citation: Forcepoint Monsoon]]

Table 272. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0128

https://www.forcepoint.com/sites/default/files/resources/files/forcepoint-security-labs-monsoon-analysis-report.pdf

Flame

Flame is a sophisticated toolkit that has been used to collect information since at least 2010, largely targeting Middle East countries.[[Citation: Kaspersky Flame]]

Aliases: Flame, Flamer, sKyWIper

Flame is also known as:

  • Flame

  • Flamer

  • sKyWIper

Table 273. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0143

https://securelist.com/blog/incidents/34344/the-flame-questions-and-answers-51/

RIPTIDE

RIPTIDE is a proxy-aware backdoor used by APT12.[[Citation: Moran 2014]]

Table 274. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0003

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2014/09/darwins-favorite-apt-group-2.html

CozyCar

CozyCar is malware that was used by APT29 from 2010 to 2015. It is a modular malware platform, and its backdoor component can be instructed to download and execute a variety of modules with different functionality.[[Citation: F-Secure The Dukes]]

Aliases: CozyCar, CozyDuke, CozyBear, Cozer, EuroAPT

CozyCar is also known as:

  • CozyCar

  • CozyDuke

  • CozyBear

  • Cozer

  • EuroAPT

Table 275. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0046

https://www.f-secure.com/documents/996508/1030745/dukes%20whitepaper.pdf

Mivast

Mivast is a backdoor that has been used by Deep Panda. It was reportedly used in the Anthem breach.[[Citation: Symantec Black Vine]]

Table 276. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0080

http://www.symantec.com/content/en/us/enterprise/media/security%20response/whitepapers/the-black-vine-cyberespionage-group.pdf

Cherry Picker

Cherry Picker is a point of sale (PoS) memory scraper.[[Citation: Trustwave Cherry Picker]]

Table 277. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0107

https://www.trustwave.com/Resources/SpiderLabs-Blog/Shining-the-Spotlight-on-Cherry-Picker-PoS-Malware/

XTunnel

XTunnel a VPN-like network proxy tool that can relay traffic between a C2 server and a victim. It was first seen in May 2013 and reportedly used by APT28 during the compromise of the Democratic National Committee.[[Citation: Crowdstrike DNC June 2016]][[Citation: Invincea XTunnel]][[Citation: ESET Sednit Part 2]]

Aliases: XTunnel, X-Tunnel, XAPS

XTunnel is also known as:

  • XTunnel

  • X-Tunnel

  • XAPS

Table 278. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0117

https://www.invincea.com/2016/07/tunnel-of-gov-dnc-hack-and-the-russian-xtunnel/

https://www.crowdstrike.com/blog/bears-midst-intrusion-democratic-national-committee/

http://www.welivesecurity.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/eset-sednit-part-2.pdf

GeminiDuke

GeminiDuke is malware that was used by APT29 from 2009 to 2012.[[Citation: F-Secure The Dukes]]

Table 279. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0049

https://www.f-secure.com/documents/996508/1030745/dukes%20whitepaper.pdf

Sakula

Sakula is a remote access tool (RAT) that first surfaced in 2012 and was used in intrusions throughout 2015.[[Citation: Dell Sakula]]

Aliases: Sakula, Sakurel, VIPER

Sakula is also known as:

  • Sakula

  • Sakurel

  • VIPER

Table 280. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0074

http://www.secureworks.com/cyber-threat-intelligence/threats/sakula-malware-family/

Agent.btz

Agent.btz is a worm that primarily spreads itself via removable devices such as USB drives. It reportedly infected U.S. military networks in 2008.[[Citation: Securelist Agent.btz]]

Table 281. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0092

https://securelist.com/blog/virus-watch/58551/agent-btz-a-source-of-inspiration/

Prikormka

Prikormka is a malware family used in a campaign known as Operation Groundbait. It has predominantly been observed in Ukraine and was used as early as 2008.[[Citation: ESET Operation Groundbait]]

Table 282. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0113

http://www.welivesecurity.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Operation-Groundbait.pdf

NETEAGLE

NETEAGLE is a backdoor developed by APT30 with compile dates as early as 2008. It has two main variants known as “Scout” and “Norton.”[[Citation: FireEye APT30]]

Table 283. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0034

https://www2.fireeye.com/rs/fireye/images/rpt-apt30.pdf

USBStealer

USBStealer is malware that has used by APT28 since at least 2005 to extract information from air-gapped networks. It does not have the capability to communicate over the Internet and has been used in conjunction with ADVSTORESHELL.[[Citation: ESET Sednit USBStealer 2014]][[Citation: Kaspersky Sofacy]]

Aliases: USBStealer, USB Stealer, Win32/USBStealer

USBStealer is also known as:

  • USBStealer

  • USB Stealer

  • Win32/USBStealer

Table 284. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0136

https://securelist.com/blog/research/72924/sofacy-apt-hits-high-profile-targets-with-updated-toolset/

http://www.welivesecurity.com/2014/11/11/sednit-espionage-group-attacking-air-gapped-networks/

CALENDAR

CALENDAR is malware used by APT1 that mimics legitimate Gmail Calendar traffic.[[Citation: Mandiant APT1]]

Table 285. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0025

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/services/pdfs/mandiant-apt1-report.pdf

Regin

Regin is a malware platform that has targeted victims in a range of industries, including telecom, government, and financial institutions. Some Regin timestamps date back to 2003.[[Citation: Kaspersky Regin]]

Table 286. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0019

https://securelist.com/files/2014/11/Kaspersky%20Lab%20whitepaper%20Regin%20platform%20eng.pdf

AutoIt

AutoIt is a backdoor that has been used by the actors responsible for the MONSOON campaign. The actors frequently used it in weaponized .pps files exploiting CVE-2014-6352.[[Citation: Forcepoint Monsoon]]

Table 287. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0129

https://www.forcepoint.com/sites/default/files/resources/files/forcepoint-security-labs-monsoon-analysis-report.pdf

Pteranodon

Pteranodon is a custom backdoor used by Gamaredon Group.[[Citation: Palo Alto Gamaredon Feb 2017]]

Table 288. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0147

https://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2017/02/unit-42-title-gamaredon-group-toolset-evolution/

RARSTONE

RARSTONE is malware used by the Naikon group that has some characteristics similar to PlugX.[[Citation: Aquino RARSTONE]]

Table 289. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0055

http://blog.trendmicro.com/trendlabs-security-intelligence/rarstone-found-in-targeted-attacks/

SHOTPUT

SHOTPUT is a custom backdoor used by APT3.[[Citation: FireEye Clandestine Wolf]]

Aliases: SHOTPUT, Backdoor.APT.CookieCutter, Pirpi

SHOTPUT is also known as:

  • SHOTPUT

  • Backdoor.APT.CookieCutter

  • Pirpi

Table 290. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0063

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2015/06/operation-clandestine-wolf-adobe-flash-zero-day.html

Trojan.Karagany

Trojan.Karagany is a backdoor primarily used for recon. The source code for it was leaked in 2010 and it is sold on underground forums.[[Citation: Symantec Dragonfly]]

Table 291. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0094

http://www.symantec.com/content/en/us/enterprise/media/security%20response/whitepapers/Dragonfly%20Threat%20Against%20Western%20Energy%20Suppliers.pdf

Kasidet

Kasidet is a backdoor that has been dropped by using malicious VBA macros.[[Citation: Zscaler Kasidet]]

Table 292. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0088

http://research.zscaler.com/2016/01/malicious-office-files-dropping-kasidet.html

CHOPSTICK

CHOPSTICK is malware family of modular backdoors used by APT28. It has been used from at least November 2012 to August 2016 and is usually dropped on victims as second-stage malware, though it has been used as first-stage malware in several cases.[[Citation: FireEye APT28]][[Citation: ESET Sednit Part 2]][[Citation: FireEye APT28 January 2017]]

Aliases: CHOPSTICK, SPLM, Xagent, X-Agent, webhp

CHOPSTICK is also known as:

  • CHOPSTICK

  • SPLM

  • Xagent

  • X-Agent

  • webhp

Table 293. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0023

https://www2.fireeye.com/rs/848-DID-242/images/APT28-Center-of-Storm-2017.pdf

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/global/en/current-threats/pdfs/rpt-apt28.pdf

http://www.welivesecurity.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/eset-sednit-part-2.pdf

MiniDuke

MiniDuke is malware that was used by APT29 from 2010 to 2015. The MiniDuke toolset consists of multiple downloader and backdoor components. The loader has been used with other MiniDuke components as well as in conjunction with CosmicDuke and PinchDuke.[[Citation: F-Secure The Dukes]]

Table 294. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0051

https://www.f-secure.com/documents/996508/1030745/dukes%20whitepaper.pdf

BBSRAT

BBSRAT is malware with remote access tool functionality that has been used in targeted compromises.[[Citation: Palo Alto Networks BBSRAT]]

Table 295. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0127

http://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2015/12/bbsrat-attacks-targeting-russian-organizations-linked-to-roaming-tiger/

Elise

Elise is a custom backdoor Trojan that appears to be used exclusively by Lotus Blossom. It is part of a larger group of tools referred to as LStudio, ST Group, and APT0LSTU.[[Citation: Lotus Blossom Jun 2015]]

Aliases: Elise, BKDR_ESILE, Page

Elise is also known as:

  • Elise

  • BKDR_ESILE

  • Page

Table 296. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0081

https://www.paloaltonetworks.com/resources/research/unit42-operation-lotus-blossom.html

BISCUIT

BISCUIT is a backdoor that has been used by APT1 since as early as 2007.[[Citation: Mandiant APT1]]

Table 297. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0017

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/services/pdfs/mandiant-apt1-report.pdf

Uroburos

Uroburos is a rootkit used by Turla.[[Citation: Kaspersky Turla]]

Table 298. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0022

https://securelist.com/analysis/publications/65545/the-epic-turla-operation/

POWERSOURCE

POWERSOURCE is a PowerShell backdoor that is a heavily obfuscated and modified version of the publicly available tool DNS_TXT_Pwnage. It was observed in February 2017 in spearphishing campaigns against personnel involved with United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings at various organizations. The malware was delivered when macros were enabled by the victim and a VBS script was dropped.[[Citation: FireEye FIN7 March 2017]][[Citation: Cisco DNSMessenger March 2017]]

Aliases: POWERSOURCE, DNSMessenger

POWERSOURCE is also known as:

  • POWERSOURCE

  • DNSMessenger

Table 299. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0145

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2017/03/fin7%20spear%20phishing.html

http://blog.talosintelligence.com/2017/03/dnsmessenger.html

hcdLoader

hcdLoader is a remote access tool (RAT) that has been used by APT18.[[Citation: Dell Lateral Movement]]

Table 300. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0071

http://www.secureworks.com/resources/blog/where-you-at-indicators-of-lateral-movement-using-at-exe-on-windows-7-systems/

Zeroaccess

Zeroaccess is a kernel-mode Rootkit that attempts to add victims to the ZeroAccess botnet, often for monetary gain.[[Citation: Sophos ZeroAccess]]

Aliases: Zeroaccess, Trojan.Zeroaccess

Zeroaccess is also known as:

  • Zeroaccess

  • Trojan.Zeroaccess

Table 301. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0027

https://sophosnews.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/zeroaccess2.pdf

Skeleton Key

Skeleton Key is malware used to inject false credentials into domain controllers with the intent of creating a backdoor password.Skeleton Key is included as a module in Mimikatz.

Table 302. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0007

http://www.secureworks.com/cyber-threat-intelligence/threats/skeleton-key-malware-analysis/

Shamoon

Shamoon is malware that was first used by an Iranian group known as the "Cutting Sword of Justice" in 2012. The 2.0 version was seen in 2016 targeting Middle Eastern states.[[Citation: FireEye Shamoon Nov 2016]][[Citation: Palo Alto Shamoon Nov 2016]]

Aliases: Shamoon, Disttrack

Shamoon is also known as:

  • Shamoon

  • Disttrack

Table 303. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0140

http://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2016/11/unit42-shamoon-2-return-disttrack-wiper/

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2016/11/fireeye%20respondsto.html

4H RAT

4H RAT is malware that has been used by Putter Panda since at least 2007.[[Citation: CrowdStrike Putter Panda]]

Table 304. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0065

http://cdn0.vox-cdn.com/assets/4589853/crowdstrike-intelligence-report-putter-panda.original.pdf

BOOTRASH

BOOTRASH is a Bootkit that targets Windows operating systems. It has been used by threat actors that target the financial sector.[[Citation: MTrends 2016]]

Table 305. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0114

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/regional/fr%20FR/offers/pdfs/ig-mtrends-2016.pdf

Wiper

Wiper is a family of destructive malware used in March 2013 during breaches of South Korean banks and media companies.[[Citation: Dell Wiper]]

Table 307. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0041

http://www.secureworks.com/cyber-threat-intelligence/threats/wiper-malware-analysis-attacking-korean-financial-sector/

Unknown Logger

Unknown Logger is a publicly released, free backdoor. Version 1.5 of the backdoor has been used by the actors responsible for the MONSOON campaign.[[Citation: Forcepoint Monsoon]]

Table 308. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0130

https://www.forcepoint.com/sites/default/files/resources/files/forcepoint-security-labs-monsoon-analysis-report.pdf

gh0st

gh0st is a remote access tool (RAT). The source code is public and it has been used by many groups.[[Citation: FireEye Hacking Team]]

Table 309. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0032

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2015/07/demonstrating%20hustle.html

CORESHELL

CORESHELL is a downloader used by APT28. The older versions of this malware are known as SOURFACE and newer versions as CORESHELL. It has also been referred to as Sofacy, though that term has been used widely to refer to both the group APT28 and malware families associated with the group.[[Citation: FireEye APT28]][[Citation: FireEye APT28 January 2017]]

Aliases: CORESHELL, SOURFACE

CORESHELL is also known as:

  • CORESHELL

  • SOURFACE

Table 310. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0137

https://www2.fireeye.com/rs/848-DID-242/images/APT28-Center-of-Storm-2017.pdf

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/global/en/current-threats/pdfs/rpt-apt28.pdf

Remsec

Remsec is a modular backdoor that has been used by Strider and appears to have been designed primarily for espionage purposes. Many of its modules are written in Lua.[[Citation: Symantec Strider Blog]]

Aliases: Remsec, Backdoor.Remsec, ProjectSauron

Remsec is also known as:

  • Remsec

  • Backdoor.Remsec

  • ProjectSauron

Table 311. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0125

http://www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/strider-cyberespionage-group-turns-eye-sauron-targets

FLASHFLOOD

FLASHFLOOD is malware developed by APT30 that allows propagation and exfiltration of data over removable devices. APT30 may use this capability to exfiltrate data across air-gaps.[[Citation: FireEye APT30]]

Table 312. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0036

https://www2.fireeye.com/rs/fireye/images/rpt-apt30.pdf

TINYTYPHON

TINYTYPHON is a backdoor that has been used by the actors responsible for the MONSOON campaign. The majority of its code was reportedly taken from the MyDoom worm.[[Citation: Forcepoint Monsoon]]

Table 313. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0131

https://www.forcepoint.com/sites/default/files/resources/files/forcepoint-security-labs-monsoon-analysis-report.pdf

SeaDuke

SeaDuke is malware that was used by APT29 from 2014 to 2015. It was used primarily as a secondary backdoor for victims that were already compromised with CozyCar.[[Citation: F-Secure The Dukes]]

Aliases: SeaDuke, SeaDaddy, SeaDesk

SeaDuke is also known as:

  • SeaDuke

  • SeaDaddy

  • SeaDesk

Table 314. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0053

https://www.f-secure.com/documents/996508/1030745/dukes%20whitepaper.pdf

ADVSTORESHELL

ADVSTORESHELL is a spying backdoor that has been used by APT28 from at least 2012 to 2016. It is generally used for long-term espionage and is deployed on targets deemed interesting after a reconnaissance phase.[[Citation: Kaspersky Sofacy]][[Citation: ESET Sednit Part 2]]

Aliases: ADVSTORESHELL, NETUI, EVILTOSS, AZZY, Sedreco

ADVSTORESHELL is also known as:

  • ADVSTORESHELL

  • NETUI

  • EVILTOSS

  • AZZY

  • Sedreco

Table 315. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0045

https://securelist.com/blog/research/72924/sofacy-apt-hits-high-profile-targets-with-updated-toolset/

http://www.welivesecurity.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/eset-sednit-part-2.pdf

S-Type

S-Type is a backdoor that was used by Dust Storm from 2013 to 2014.[[Citation: Cylance Dust Storm]]

Table 316. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0085

https://www.cylance.com/hubfs/2015%20cylance%20website/assets/operation-dust-storm/Op%20Dust%20Storm%20Report.pdf?t=1456259131512

NetTraveler

NetTraveler is malware that has been used in multiple cyber espionage campaigns for basic surveillance of victims. The earliest known samples have timestamps back to 2005, and the largest number of observed samples were created between 2010 and 2013.[[Citation: Kaspersky NetTraveler]]

Table 317. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0033

http://www.securelist.com/en/downloads/vlpdfs/kaspersky-the-net-traveler-part1-final.pdf

Dyre

Dyre is a Trojan that usually targets banking information.[[Citation: Raff 2015]]

Table 318. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0024

http://www.seculert.com/blogs/new-dyre-version-yet-another-malware-evading-sandboxes

P2P ZeuS

P2P ZeuS is a closed-source fork of the leaked version of the ZeuS botnet. It presents improvements over the leaked version, including a peer-to-peer architecture.[[Citation: Dell P2P ZeuS]]

Aliases: P2P ZeuS, Peer-to-Peer ZeuS, Gameover ZeuS

P2P ZeuS is also known as:

  • P2P ZeuS

  • Peer-to-Peer ZeuS

  • Gameover ZeuS

Table 319. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0016

http://www.secureworks.com/cyber-threat-intelligence/threats/The%20Lifecycle%20of%20Peer%20to%20Peer%20Gameover%20ZeuS/

ComRAT

ComRAT is a remote access tool suspected of being a decedent of Agent.btz and used by Turla.[[Citation: Symantec Waterbug]][[Citation: NorthSec 2015 GData Uroburos Tools]]

Table 320. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0126

http://www.symantec.com/content/en/us/enterprise/media/security%20response/whitepapers/waterbug-attack-group.pdf

https://www.nsec.io/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/uroburos-actors-tools-1.1.pdf

Winnti

Winnti is a Trojan that has been used by multiple groups to carry out intrusions in varied regions from at least 2010 to 2016. One of the groups using this malware is referred to by the same name, Winnti Group; however, reporting indicates a second distinct group, Axiom, also uses the malware.[[Citation: Kaspersky Winnti April 2013]][[Citation: Microsoft Winnti Jan 2017]][[Citation: Novetta Winnti April 2015]]

Table 321. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0141

http://www.novetta.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/novetta%20winntianalysis.pdf

https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/mmpc/2017/01/25/detecting-threat-actors-in-recent-german-industrial-attacks-with-windows-defender-atp/

https://kasperskycontenthub.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/43/vlpdfs/winnti-more-than-just-a-game-130410.pdf

RTM

RTM is custom malware written in Delphi. It is used by the group of the same name (RTM).[[Citation: ESET RTM Feb 2017]]

Table 322. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0148

https://www.welivesecurity.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Read-The-Manual.pdf

CallMe

CallMe is a Trojan designed to run on Apple OSX. It is based on a publicly available tool called Tiny SHell.[[Citation: Scarlet Mimic Jan 2016]]

Table 323. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0077

http://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2016/01/scarlet-mimic-years-long-espionage-targets-minority-activists/

HIDEDRV

HIDEDRV is a rootkit used by APT28. It has been deployed along with Downdelph to execute and hide that malware.[[Citation: ESET Sednit Part 3]][[Citation: Sekoia HideDRV Oct 2016]]

Table 324. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0135

http://www.sekoia.fr/blog/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Rootkit-analysis-Use-case-on-HIDEDRV-v1.6.pdf

http://www.welivesecurity.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/eset-sednit-part3.pdf

Mis-Type

Mis-Type is a backdoor hybrid that was used by Dust Storm in 2012.[[Citation: Cylance Dust Storm]]

Table 325. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0084

https://www.cylance.com/hubfs/2015%20cylance%20website/assets/operation-dust-storm/Op%20Dust%20Storm%20Report.pdf?t=1456259131512

Hikit

Hikit is malware that has been used by Axiom for late-stage and after the initial compromise.[[Citation: Axiom]]

Table 326. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0009

http://www.novetta.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Executive%20Summary-Final%201.pdf

ASPXSpy

ASPXSpy is a Web shell. It has been modified by Threat Group-3390 actors to create the ASPXTool version.[[Citation: Dell TG-3390]]

Aliases: ASPXSpy, ASPXTool

ASPXSpy is also known as:

  • ASPXSpy

  • ASPXTool

Table 327. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0073

http://www.secureworks.com/cyber-threat-intelligence/threats/threat-group-3390-targets-organizations-for-cyberespionage/

Sykipot

Sykipot is malware that has been used in spearphishing campaigns since approximately 2007 against victims primarily in the US. One variant of Sykipot hijacks smart cards on victims.[[Citation: Alienvault Sykipot DOD Smart Cards]] The group using this malware has also been referred to as Sykipot.[[Citation: Blasco 2013]]

Table 328. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0018

http://www.alienvault.com/open-threat-exchange/blog/new-sykipot-developments

https://www.alienvault.com/open-threat-exchange/blog/sykipot-variant-hijacks-dod-and-windows-smart-cards

GLOOXMAIL

GLOOXMAIL is malware used by APT1 that mimics legitimate Jabber/XMPP traffic.[[Citation: Mandiant APT1]]

Aliases: GLOOXMAIL, Trojan.GTALK

GLOOXMAIL is also known as:

  • GLOOXMAIL

  • Trojan.GTALK

Table 329. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0026

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/services/pdfs/mandiant-apt1-report.pdf

Emissary

Emissary is a Trojan that has been used by Lotus Blossom. It shares code with Elise, with both Trojans being part of a malware group referred to as LStudio.[[Citation: Lotus Blossom Dec 2015]]

Table 330. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0082

http://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2015/12/attack-on-french-diplomat-linked-to-operation-lotus-blossom/

Miner-C

Miner-C is malware that mines victims for the Monero cryptocurrency. It has targeted FTP servers and Network Attached Storage (NAS) devices to spread.[[Citation: Softpedia MinerC]]

Aliases: Miner-C, Mal/Miner-C, PhotoMiner

Miner-C is also known as:

  • Miner-C

  • Mal/Miner-C

  • PhotoMiner

Table 331. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0133

http://news.softpedia.com/news/cryptocurrency-mining-malware-discovered-targeting-seagate-nas-hard-drives-508119.shtml

DustySky

DustySky is multi-stage malware written in .NET that has been used by Molerats since May 2015.[[Citation: DustySky]][[Citation: DustySky2]]

Aliases: DustySky, NeD Worm

DustySky is also known as:

  • DustySky

  • NeD Worm

Table 332. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0062

http://www.clearskysec.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Operation-DustySky2%20-6.2016%20TLP%20White.pdf

BUBBLEWRAP

BUBBLEWRAP is a full-featured, second-stage backdoor used by the admin@338 group. It is set to run when the system boots and includes functionality to check, upload, and register plug-ins that can further enhance its capabilities.[[Citation: FireEye admin@338]]

Aliases: BUBBLEWRAP, Backdoor.APT.FakeWinHTTPHelper

BUBBLEWRAP is also known as:

  • BUBBLEWRAP

  • Backdoor.APT.FakeWinHTTPHelper

Table 333. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0043

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2015/11/china-based-threat.html

pngdowner

pngdowner is malware used by Putter Panda. It is a simple tool with limited functionality and no persistence mechanism, suggesting it is used only as a simple "download-and- execute" utility.[[Citation: CrowdStrike Putter Panda]]

Table 334. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0067

http://cdn0.vox-cdn.com/assets/4589853/crowdstrike-intelligence-report-putter-panda.original.pdf

SslMM

SslMM is a full-featured backdoor used by Naikon that has multiple variants.[[Citation: Baumgartner Naikon 2015]]

Table 335. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0058

https://securelist.com/files/2015/05/TheNaikonAPT-MsnMM1.pdf

Nidiran

Nidiran is a custom backdoor developed and used by Suckfly. It has been delivered via strategic web compromise.[[Citation: Symantec Suckfly March 2016]]

Aliases: Nidiran, Backdoor.Nidiran

Nidiran is also known as:

  • Nidiran

  • Backdoor.Nidiran

Table 336. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0118

http://www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/suckfly-revealing-secret-life-your-code-signing-certificates

Trojan.Mebromi

Trojan.Mebromi is BIOS-level malware that takes control of the victim before MBR.[[Citation: Ge 2011]]

Table 337. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0001

http://www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/bios-threat-showing-again

OwaAuth

OwaAuth is a Web shell and credential stealer deployed to Microsoft Exchange servers that appears to be exclusively used by Threat Group-3390.[[Citation: Dell TG-3390]]

Table 338. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0072

http://www.secureworks.com/cyber-threat-intelligence/threats/threat-group-3390-targets-organizations-for-cyberespionage/

ROCKBOOT

ROCKBOOT is a Bootkit that has been used by an unidentified, suspected China-based group.[[Citation: FireEye Bootkits]]

Table 339. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0112

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2015/12/fin1-targets-boot-record.html

OnionDuke

OnionDuke is malware that was used by APT29 from 2013 to 2015.[[Citation: F-Secure The Dukes]]

Table 340. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0052

https://www.f-secure.com/documents/996508/1030745/dukes%20whitepaper.pdf

LOWBALL

LOWBALL is malware used by admin@338. It was used in August 2015 in email messages targeting Hong Kong-based media organizations.[[Citation: FireEye admin@338]]

Table 341. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0042

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2015/11/china-based-threat.html

BLACKCOFFEE

BLACKCOFFEE is malware that has been used by APT17 since at least 2013.[[Citation: FireEye APT17]]

Table 342. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0069

https://www2.fireeye.com/rs/fireye/images/APT17%20Report.pdf

Derusbi

Derusbi is malware used by multiple Chinese APT groups.[[Citation: Axiom]][[Citation: ThreatConnect Anthem]] Both Windows and Linux variants have been observed.[[Citation: Fidelis Turbo]]

Table 343. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0021

http://www.novetta.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Executive%20Summary-Final%201.pdf

https://www.fidelissecurity.com/sites/default/files/TA%20Fidelis%20Turbo%201602%200.pdf

https://www.threatconnect.com/the-anthem-hack-all-roads-lead-to-china/

Epic

Epic is a backdoor that has been used by Turla.[[Citation: Kaspersky Turla]]

Aliases: Epic, Tavdig, Wipbot, WorldCupSec, TadjMakhal

Epic is also known as:

  • Epic

  • Tavdig

  • Wipbot

  • WorldCupSec

  • TadjMakhal

Table 344. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0091

https://securelist.com/analysis/publications/65545/the-epic-turla-operation/

Lurid

Lurid is a malware family that has been used by several groups, including PittyTiger, in targeted attacks as far back as 2006.[[Citation: Villeneuve 2014]][[Citation: Villeneuve 2011]]

Aliases: Lurid, Enfal

Lurid is also known as:

  • Lurid

  • Enfal

Table 345. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0010

http://www.trendmicro.com/cloud-content/us/pdfs/security-intelligence/white-papers/wp%20dissecting-lurid-apt.pdf

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2014/07/spy-of-the-tiger.html

3PARA RAT

3PARA RAT is a remote access tool (RAT) programmed in C++ that has been used by Putter Panda.[[Citation: CrowdStrike Putter Panda]]

Table 346. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0066

http://cdn0.vox-cdn.com/assets/4589853/crowdstrike-intelligence-report-putter-panda.original.pdf

JHUHUGIT

JHUHUGIT is malware used by APT28. It is based on Carberp source code and serves as reconnaissance malware.[[Citation: Kaspersky Sofacy]][[Citation: F-Secure Sofacy 2015]][[Citation: ESET Sednit Part 1]][[Citation: FireEye APT28 January 2017]]

Aliases: JHUHUGIT, Seduploader, JKEYSKW, Sednit, GAMEFISH

JHUHUGIT is also known as:

  • JHUHUGIT

  • Seduploader

  • JKEYSKW

  • Sednit

  • GAMEFISH

Table 347. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0044

https://www2.fireeye.com/rs/848-DID-242/images/APT28-Center-of-Storm-2017.pdf

http://www.welivesecurity.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/eset-sednit-part1.pdf

https://securelist.com/blog/research/72924/sofacy-apt-hits-high-profile-targets-with-updated-toolset/

https://labsblog.f-secure.com/2015/09/08/sofacy-recycles-carberp-and-metasploit-code/

ELMER

ELMER is a non-persistent, proxy-aware HTTP backdoor written in Delphi that has been used by APT16.[[Citation: FireEye EPS Awakens Part 2]]

Table 348. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0064

https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2015/12/the-eps-awakens-part-two.html

Tool

Name of ATT&CK software.

Tool is a cluster galaxy available in JSON format at this location The JSON format can be freely reused in your application or automatically enabled in MISP.
authors

MITRE

at

at is used to schedule tasks on a system to run at a specified date or time.[[Citation: TechNet At]]

Aliases: at, at.exe

at is also known as:

  • at

  • at.exe

Table 349. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0110

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb490866.aspx

route

route can be used to find or change information within the local system IP routing table.[[Citation: TechNet Route]]

Aliases: route, route.exe

route is also known as:

  • route

  • route.exe

Table 350. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0103

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb490991.aspx

Tasklist

The Tasklist utility displays a list of applications and services with their Process IDs (PID) for all tasks running on either a local or a remote computer. It is packaged with Windows operating systems and can be executed from the command-line interface.[[Citation: Microsoft Tasklist]]

Table 351. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0057

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb491010.aspx

Windows Credential Editor

Windows Credential Editor is a password dumping tool.[[Citation: Amplia WCE]]

Aliases: Windows Credential Editor, WCE

Windows Credential Editor is also known as:

  • Windows Credential Editor

  • WCE

Table 352. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0005

http://www.ampliasecurity.com/research/wcefaq.html

schtasks

schtasks is used to schedule execution of programs or scripts on a Windows system to run at a specific date and time.[[Citation: TechNet Schtasks]]

Aliases: schtasks, schtasks.exe

schtasks is also known as:

  • schtasks

  • schtasks.exe

Table 353. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0111

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb490996.aspx

UACMe

UACMe is an open source assessment tool that contains many methods for bypassing Windows User Account Control on multiple versions of the operating system.[[Citation: Github UACMe]]

Table 354. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0116

https://github.com/hfiref0x/UACME

ifconfig

ifconfig is a Unix-based utility used to gather information about and interact with the TCP/IP settings on a system.[[Citation: Wikipedia Ifconfig]]

Table 355. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0101

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ifconfig

Mimikatz

Mimikatz is a credential dumper capable of obtaining plaintext Windows account logins and passwords, along with many other features that make it useful for testing the security of networks.[[Citation: Deply Mimikatz]][[Citation: Adsecurity Mimikatz Guide]]

Table 356. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0002

https://adsecurity.org/?page%20id=1821

https://github.com/gentilkiwi/mimikatz

xCmd

xCmd is an open source tool that is similar to PsExec and allows the user to execute applications on remote systems.[[Citation: xCmd]]

Table 357. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0123

https://ashwinrayaprolu.wordpress.com/2011/04/12/xcmd-an-alternative-to-psexec/

Systeminfo

Systeminfo is a Windows utility that can be used to gather detailed information about a computer.[[Citation: TechNet Systeminfo]]

Aliases: Systeminfo, systeminfo.exe

Systeminfo is also known as:

  • Systeminfo

  • systeminfo.exe

Table 358. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0096

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb491007.aspx

netsh

netsh is a scripting utility used to interact with networking components on local or remote systems.[[Citation: TechNet Netsh]]

Aliases: netsh, netsh.exe

netsh is also known as:

  • netsh

  • netsh.exe

Table 359. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0108

https://technet.microsoft.com/library/bb490939.aspx

dsquery

dsquery is a command-line utility that can be used to query Active Directory for information from a system within a domain.[[Citation: TechNet Dsquery]] It is typically installed only on Windows Server versions but can be installed on non-server variants through the Microsoft-provided Remote Server Administration Tools bundle.

Aliases: dsquery, dsquery.exe

dsquery is also known as:

  • dsquery

  • dsquery.exe

Table 360. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0105

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc732952.aspx

gsecdump

gsecdump is a publicly-available credential dumper used to obtain password hashes and LSA secrets from Windows operating systems.[[Citation: TrueSec Gsecdump]]

Table 361. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0008

http://www.truesec.com/Tools/Tool/gsecdump%20v2.0b5

Ping

Ping is an operating system utility commonly used to troubleshoot and verify network connections.[[Citation: TechNet Ping]]

Aliases: Ping, ping.exe

Ping is also known as:

  • Ping

  • ping.exe

Table 362. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0097

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb490968.aspx

Fgdump

Fgdump is a Windows password hash dumper.[[Citation: Mandiant APT1]]

Table 363. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0120

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/services/pdfs/mandiant-apt1-report.pdf

Lslsass

Lslsass is a publicly-available tool that can dump active logon session password hashes from the lsass process.[[Citation: Mandiant APT1]]

Table 364. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0121

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/services/pdfs/mandiant-apt1-report.pdf

Pass-The-Hash Toolkit

Pass-The-Hash Toolkit is a toolkit that allows an adversary to "pass" a password hash (without knowing the original password) to log in to systems.[[Citation: Mandiant APT1]]

Table 365. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0122

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/services/pdfs/mandiant-apt1-report.pdf

FTP

FTP is a utility commonly available with operating systems to transfer information over the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Adversaries can use it to transfer other tools onto a system or to exfiltrate data.[[Citation: Wikipedia FTP]]

Aliases: FTP, ftp.exe

FTP is also known as:

  • FTP

  • ftp.exe

Table 366. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0095

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File%20Transfer%20Protocol

ipconfig

ipconfig is a Windows utility that can be used to find information about a system’s TCP/IP, DNS, DHCP, and adapter configuration.[[Citation: TechNet Ipconfig]]

Aliases: ipconfig, ipconfig.exe

ipconfig is also known as:

  • ipconfig

  • ipconfig.exe

Table 367. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0100

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb490921.aspx

nbtstat

nbtstat is a utility used to troubleshoot NetBIOS name resolution.[[Citation: TechNet Nbtstat]]

Aliases: nbtstat, nbtstat.exe

nbtstat is also known as:

  • nbtstat

  • nbtstat.exe

Table 368. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0102

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc940106.aspx

HTRAN

HTRAN is a tool that proxies connections through intermediate hops and aids users in disguising their true geographical location. It can be used by adversaries to hide their location when interacting with the victim networks. [[Citation: Operation Quantum Entanglement]]

Aliases: HTRAN, HUC Packet Transmit Tool

HTRAN is also known as:

  • HTRAN

  • HUC Packet Transmit Tool

Table 369. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0040

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/global/en/current-threats/pdfs/wp-operation-quantum-entanglement.pdf

netstat

netstat is an operating system utility that displays active TCP connections, listening ports, and network statistics.[[Citation: TechNet Netstat]]

Aliases: netstat, netstat.exe

netstat is also known as:

  • netstat

  • netstat.exe

Table 370. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0104

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb490947.aspx

pwdump

pwdump is a credential dumper.[[Citation: Wikipedia pwdump]]

Table 371. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0006

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pwdump

Cachedump

Cachedump is a publicly-available tool that program extracts cached password hashes from a system’s registry.[[Citation: Mandiant APT1]]

Table 372. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0119

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/services/pdfs/mandiant-apt1-report.pdf

Net

The Net utility is a component of the Windows operating system. It is used in command-line operations for control of users, groups, services, and network connections.Net has a great deal of functionality,[[Citation: Savill 1999]] much of which is useful for an adversary, such as gathering system and network information for , moving laterally through [[Windows admin shares]] using <code>net use</code> commands, and interacting with services.

Aliases: Net, net.exe

Net is also known as:

  • Net

  • net.exe

Table 373. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0039

https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa939914

http://windowsitpro.com/windows/netexe-reference

PsExec

PsExec is a free Microsoft tool that can be used to execute a program on another computer. It is used by IT administrators and attackers.[[Citation: Russinovich Sysinternals]][[Citation: SANS PsExec]]

Table 374. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0029

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb897553.aspx

https://digital-forensics.sans.org/blog/2012/12/17/protecting-privileged-domain-accounts-psexec-deep-dive

Arp

Arp displays information about a system’s Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache.[[Citation: TechNet Arp]]

Aliases: Arp, arp.exe

Arp is also known as:

  • Arp

  • arp.exe

Table 375. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0099

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb490864.aspx

cmd

cmd is the Windows command-line interpreter that can be used to interact with systems and execute other processes and utilities.[[Citation: TechNet Cmd]]

Cmd.exe contains native functionality to perform many operations to interact with the system, including listing files in a directory (e.g., <code>dir</code>[[Citation: TechNet Dir]]), deleting files (e.g., <code>del</code>[[Citation: TechNet Del]]), and copying files (e.g., <code>copy</code>[[Citation: TechNet Copy]]).

Aliases: cmd, cmd.exe

cmd is also known as:

  • cmd

  • cmd.exe

Table 376. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0106

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb490880.aspx

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb490886.aspx

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc771049.aspx

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc755121.aspx

Reg

Reg is a Windows utility used to interact with the Windows Registry. It can be used at the command-line interface to query, add, modify, and remove information.Reg are known to be used by persistent threats.[[Citation: Windows Commands JPCERT]]

Aliases: Reg, reg.exe

Reg is also known as:

  • Reg

  • reg.exe

Table 377. Table References

Links

https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/Software/S0075

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc732643.aspx

http://blog.jpcert.or.jp/2016/01/windows-commands-abused-by-attackers.html

Preventive Measure

Preventive measures based on the ransomware document overview as published in https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1TWS238xacAto-fLKh1n5uTsdijWdCEsGIM0Y0Hvmc5g/pubhtml# . The preventive measures are quite generic and can fit any standard Windows infrastructure and their security measures..

Preventive Measure is a cluster galaxy available in JSON format at https://github.com/MISP/misp-galaxy/blob/master/clusters/preventive measure.json[this location] The JSON format can be freely reused in your application or automatically enabled in MISP.
authors

Various

Backup and Restore Process

Make sure to have adequate backup processes on place and frequently test a restore of these backups. (Schrödinger’s backup - it is both existent and non-existent until you’ve tried a restore

Table 378. Table References

Links

http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/back-up-restore-faq#1TC=windows-7.[http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/back-up-restore-faq#1TC=windows-7.]

Block Macros

Disable macros in Office files downloaded from the Internet. This can be configured to work in two different modes: A.) Open downloaded documents in 'Protected View' B.) Open downloaded documents and block all macros

Table 379. Table References

Links

https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Enable-or-disable-macros-in-Office-files-12b036fd-d140-4e74-b45e-16fed1a7e5c6?ui=en-US&rs=en-US&ad=US

https://www.404techsupport.com/2016/04/office2016-macro-group-policy/?utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=twitter

Filter Attachments Level 1

Filter the following attachments on your mail gateway: .ade, .adp, .ani, .bas, .bat, .chm, .cmd, .com, .cpl, .crt, .exe, .hlp, .ht, .hta, .inf, .ins, .isp, .jar, .job, .js, .jse, .lnk, .mda, .mdb, .mde, .mdz, .msc, .msi, .msp, .mst, .ocx, .pcd, .ps1, .reg, .scr, .sct, .shs, .svg, .url, .vb, .vbe, .vbs, .wbk, .wsc, .ws, .wsf, .wsh, .exe, .pif, .pub

Filter Attachments Level 2

Filter the following attachments on your mail gateway: (Filter expression of Level 1 plus) .doc, .xls, .rtf, .docm, .xlsm, .pptm

Show File Extensions

Set the registry key "HideFileExt" to 0 in order to show all file extensions, even of known file types. This helps avoiding cloaking tricks that use double extensions. (e.g. "not_a_virus.pdf.exe")

Table 382. Table References

Links

http://www.sevenforums.com/tutorials/10570-file-extensions-hide-show.htm

Enforce UAC Prompt

Enforce administrative users to confirm an action that requires elevated rights

Table 383. Table References

Links

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd835564(WS.10).aspx

Remove Admin Privileges

Remove and restrict administrative rights whenever possible. Malware can only modify files that users have write access to.

Restrict Workstation Communication

Activate the Windows Firewall to restrict workstation to workstation communication

Sandboxing Email Input

Using sandbox that opens email attachments and removes attachments based on behavior analysis

Execution Prevention

Software that allows to control the execution of processes - sometimes integrated in Antivirus software Free: AntiHook, ProcessGuard, System Safety Monitor

Change Default "Open With" to Notepad

Force extensions primarily used for infections to open up in Notepad rather than Windows Script Host or Internet Explorer

Table 384. Table References

Links

https://bluesoul.me/2016/05/12/use-gpo-to-change-the-default-behavior-of-potentially-malicious-file-extensions/

File Screening

Server-side file screening with the help of File Server Resource Manager

Table 385. Table References

Links

http://jpelectron.com/sample/Info%20and%20Documents/Stop%20crypto%20badware%20before%20it%20ruins%20your%20day/1-PreventCrypto-Readme.htm

EMET

Detect and block exploitation techniques

Table 387. Table References

Links

www.microsoft.com/emet[www.microsoft.com/emet]

http://windowsitpro.com/security/control-emet-group-policy

Sysmon

Detect Ransomware in an early stage with new Sysmon 5 File/Registry monitoring

Table 388. Table References

Links

https://twitter.com/JohnLaTwC/status/799792296883388416

Ransomware

Ransomware is a cluster galaxy available in JSON format at this location The JSON format can be freely reused in your application or automatically enabled in MISP.

Nhtnwcuf Ransomware (Fake)

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 389. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/nhtnwcuf-ransomware.html

CryptoJacky Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 390. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/cryptojacky-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/jiriatvirlab/status/838779371750031360

Kaenlupuf Ransomware

About: This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 391. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/kaenlupuf-ransomware.html

EnjeyCrypter Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 392. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/enjey-crypter-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/the-week-in-ransomware-march-10th-2017-spora-cerber-and-technical-writeups/

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/embittered-enjey-ransomware-developer-launches-ddos-attack-on-id-ransomware/

Dangerous Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 393. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/dangerous-ransomware.html

Vortex Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Vortex Ransomware is also known as:

  • Ŧl๏tєгค гคภร๏๓ฬคгє

Table 394. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/vortex-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/struppigel/status/839778905091424260

GC47 Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 395. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/gc47-ransomware.html

RozaLocker Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 396. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/rozalocker-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/jiriatvirlab/status/840863070733885440

CryptoMeister Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 397. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/cryptomeister-ransomware.html

GG Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Poses as Hewlett-Packard 2016

Table 398. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/gg-ransomware.html

Project34 Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 399. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/project34-ransomware.html

PetrWrap Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 400. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/petrwrap-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/petrwrap-ransomware-is-a-petya-offspring-used-in-targeted-attacks/

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/the-week-in-ransomware-march-17th-2017-revenge-petrwrap-and-captain-kirk/

https://securelist.com/blog/research/77762/petrwrap-the-new-petya-based-ransomware-used-in-targeted-attacks/

Karmen Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. RaaS, baed on HiddenTear

Table 401. Table References

Links

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/the-week-in-ransomware-march-17th-2017-revenge-petrwrap-and-captain-kirk/

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/karmen-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/malwrhunterteam/status/841747002438361089

Revenge Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. CryptoMix / CryptFile2 Variant

Table 402. Table References

Links

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/revenge-ransomware-a-cryptomix-variant-being-distributed-by-rig-exploit-kit/

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/revenge-ransomware.html

Turkish FileEncryptor Ransomware

his is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Turkish FileEncryptor Ransomware is also known as:

  • Fake CTB-Locker

Table 403. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/turkish-fileencryptor.html

https://twitter.com/JakubKroustek/status/842034887397908480

ZinoCrypt Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 405. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/zinocrypt-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/demonslay335?lang=en

https://twitter.com/malwrhunterteam/status/842781575410597894

Crptxxx Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Uses @enigma0x3’s UAC bypass

Table 406. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/crptxxx-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/609690/ultracrypter-cryptxxx-ultradecrypter-ransomware-help-topic-crypt-cryp1/page-84

http://www.fixinfectedpc.com/uninstall-crptxxx-ransomware-from-pc

https://twitter.com/malwrhunterteam/status/839467168760725508

MOTD Ransomware

About: This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 407. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/motd-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/642409/motd-of-ransome-hostage/

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/642409/motd-ransomware-help-support-topics-motdtxt-and-enc-extension/

CryptoDevil Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 408. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/cryptodevil-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/PolarToffee/status/843527738774507522

FabSysCrypto Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Based on HiddenTear

Table 409. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/fabsyscrypto-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/struppigel/status/837565766073475072

Lock2017 Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 410. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/lock2017-ransomware.html

RedAnts Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 411. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/redants-ransomware.html

ConsoleApplication1 Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 412. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/consoleapplication1-ransomware.html

KRider Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 413. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/krider-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/malwrhunterteam/status/836995570384453632

CYR-Locker Ransomware (FAKE)

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. The following note is what you get if you put in the wrong key code: https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-qsS0x-tHx00/WLM3kkKWKAI/AAAAAAAAEDg/Zhy3eYf-ek8fY5uM0yHs7E0fEFg2AXG-gCLcB/s1600/failed-key.jpg

Table 414. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/search?updated-min=2017-01-01T00:00:00-08:00&updated-max=2018-01-01T00:00:00-08:00&max-results=50

DotRansomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 415. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/dotransomware.html

Unlock26 Ransomware

About: This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments.All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 416. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/unlock26-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/new-raas-portal-preparing-to-spread-unlock26-ransomware/

PicklesRansomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Python Ransomware

Table 417. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/pickles-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/JakubKroustek/status/834821166116327425

Vanguard Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. This ransomware poses at MSOffice to fool users into opening the infected file. GO Ransomware

Table 418. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/vanguard-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/JAMESWT_MHT/status/834783231476166657

PyL33T Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 419. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/pyl33t-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/Jan0fficial/status/834706668466405377

TrumpLocker Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. This is the old VenusLocker in disquise .To delete shadow files use the following commend: C:\Windows\system32\wbem\wmic.exe shadowcopy delete&exit https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-8qIiBHnE9yU/WK1mZn3LgwI/AAAAAAAAD-M/ZKl7_Iwr1agYtlVO3HXaUrwitcowp5_NQCLcB/s1600/lock.jpg

Table 420. Table References

Links

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/new-trump-locker-ransomware-is-a-fraud-just-venuslocker-in-disguise/

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/trumplocker.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/the-week-in-ransomware-february-24th-2017-trump-locker-macos-rw-and-cryptomix/

Damage Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Written in Delphi

Table 421. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/damage-ransomware.html

https://decrypter.emsisoft.com/damage

https://twitter.com/demonslay335/status/835664067843014656

XYZWare Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Based on HiddenTear

Table 422. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/xyzware-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/malwrhunterteam/status/833636006721122304

YouAreFucked Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 423. Table References

Links

https://www.enigmasoftware.com/youarefuckedransomware-removal/

CryptConsole 2.0 Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 424. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/cryptconsole-2-ransomware.html

BarRax Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Based on HiddenTear

BarRax Ransomware is also known as:

  • BarRaxCrypt Ransomware

Table 425. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/barraxcrypt-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/demonslay335/status/835668540367777792

CryptoLocker by NTK Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 426. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/cryptolocker-by-ntk-ransomware.html

UserFilesLocker Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

UserFilesLocker Ransomware is also known as:

  • CzechoSlovak Ransomware

Table 427. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/userfileslocker-ransomware.html

AvastVirusinfo Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. PAYING RANSOM IS USELESS, YOUR FILES WILL NOT BE FIXED. THE DAMAGE IS PERMENENT!!!!

Table 428. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017_03_01_archive.html

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/avastvirusinfo-ransomware.html

SuchSecurity Ransomware

This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 429. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/suchsecurity-ransomware.html

PleaseRead Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

PleaseRead Ransomware is also known as:

  • VHDLocker Ransomware

Table 430. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/vhd-ransomware.html

Kasiski Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 431. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/kasiski-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/MarceloRivero/status/832302976744173570

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/the-week-in-ransomware-february-17th-2017-live-hermes-reversing-and-scada-poc-ransomware/

Fake Locky Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Fake Locky Ransomware is also known as:

  • Locky Impersonator Ransomware

Table 432. Table References

Links

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/the-locky-ransomware-encrypts-local-files-and-unmapped-network-shares/

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/locky-impersonator.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/locky-ransomware-switches-to-thor-extension-after-being-a-bad-malware/

CryptoShield 1.0 Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. CryptoShield 1.0 is a ransomware from the CryptoMix family.

Table 433. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/cryptoshield-2-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/cryptomix-variant-named-cryptoshield-1-0-ransomware-distributed-by-exploit-kits/

Hermes Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Filemarker: "HERMES"

Table 434. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/hermes-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/the-week-in-ransomware-february-17th-2017-live-hermes-reversing-and-scada-poc-ransomware/

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/642019/hermes-ransomware-help-support-decrypt-informationhtml/

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/hermes-ransomware-decrypted-in-live-video-by-emsisofts-fabian-wosar/

LoveLock Ransomware or Love2Lock Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 435. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/lovelock-ransomware.html

Wcry Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 436. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/wcry-ransomware.html

DUMB Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 437. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/dumb-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/bleepincomputer/status/816053140147597312?lang=en

X-Files

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 438. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017_02_01_archive.html

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/x-files-ransomware.html

Polski Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. The Ransom is 249$ and the hacker demands that the victim gets in contact through e-mail and a Polish messenger called Gadu-Gadu.

Table 439. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/polski-ransomware.html

YourRansom Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. This hacker demands that the victim contacts him through email and decrypts the files for FREE.(moreinfo in the link below)

Table 440. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/yourransom-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/yourransom-is-the-latest-in-a-long-line-of-prank-and-educational-ransomware/

https://twitter.com/_ddoxer/status/827555507741274113

Ranion RaasRansomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Ranion Raas gives the opportunity to regular people to buy and distribute ransomware for a very cheap price. (More info in the link below). RaaS service

Table 441. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/ranion-raas.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/ranion-ransomware-as-a-service-available-on-the-dark-web-for-educational-purposes/

Potato Ransomware

Wants a ransom to get the victim’s files back . Originated in English. Spread worldwide.

Table 442. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/polato-ransomware.html

of Ransomware: OpenToYou (Formerly known as OpenToDecrypt)

This ransomware is originated in English, therefore could be used worldwide. Ransomware is spread with the help of email spam, fake ads, fake updates, infected install files.

Table 443. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/opentodecrypt-ransomware.html

RansomPlus

Author of this ransomware is sergej. Ransom is 0.25 bitcoins for the return of files. Originated in English. Used worldwide. This ransomware is spread with the help of email spam, fake ads, fake updates, infected install files.

Table 444. Table References

Links

http://www.2-spyware.com/remove-ransomplus-ransomware-virus.html

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/ransomplus-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/jiriatvirlab/status/825411602535088129

CryptConsole

This ransomware does not actually encrypt your file, but only changes the names of your files, just like Globe Ransomware. This ransomware is spread with the help of email spam, fake ads, fake updates, infected install files

Table 445. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/cryptconsole-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/638344/cryptconsole-uncrypteoutlookcom-support-topic-how-decrypt-fileshta/

https://twitter.com/PolarToffee/status/824705553201057794

ZXZ Ramsomware

Originated in English, could affect users worldwide, however so far only reports from Saudi Arabia. The malware name founded by a windows server tools is called win32/wagcrypt.A

Table 446. Table References

Links

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/638191/zxz-ransomware-support-help-topic-zxz/?hl=%2Bzxz#entry4168310

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/zxz-ransomware.html

VxLock Ransomware

Developed in Visual Studios in 2010. Original name is VxCrypt. This ransomware encrypts your files, including photos, music, MS office, Open Office, PDF… etc

Table 447. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/vxlock-ransomware.html

FunFact Ransomware

Funfact uses an open code for GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG), then asks to email them to find out the amout of bitcoin to send (to receive a decrypt code). Written in English, can attach all over the world. The ransom is 1.22038 BTC, which is 1100USD.

Table 448. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/funfact.html

http://www.enigmasoftware.com/funfactransomware-removal/

ZekwaCrypt Ransomware

First spotted in May 2016, however made a big comeback in January 2017. It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. Ransomware is spread with the help of email spam, fake ads, fake updates, infected install files.

Table 449. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/06/zekwacrypt-ransomware.html

http://www.2-spyware.com/remove-zekwacrypt-ransomware-virus.html

Sage 2.0 Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. This ransomware attacks your MS Office by offering a Micro to help with your program, but instead incrypts all your files if the used id not protected. Predecessor CryLocker

Table 450. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/sage-2-ransomware.html

https://isc.sans.edu/forums/diary/Sage+20+Ransomware/21959/

http://www.securityweek.com/sage-20-ransomware-demands-2000-ransom

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/sage-2-0-ransomware-gearing-up-for-possible-greater-distribution/

https://www.govcert.admin.ch/blog/27/sage-2.0-comes-with-ip-generation-algorithm-ipga

CloudSword Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. Uses the name “Window Update” to confuse its victims. Then imitates the window update process , while turning off the Window Startup Repair and changes the BootStatusPolicy using these commands: bcdedit.exe /set {default} recoveryenabled No bcdedit.exe /set {default} bootstatuspolicy ignoreallfailures

Table 451. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/cloudsword.html

http://bestsecuritysearch.com/cloudsword-ransomware-virus-removal-steps-protection-updates/

https://twitter.com/BleepinComputer/status/822653335681593345

DN

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. Uses the name “Chrome Update” to confuse its victims. Then imitates the chrome update process ,while encrypting the files. DO NOT pay the ransom, since YOUR COMPUTER WILL NOT BE RESTORED FROM THIS MALWARE!!!!

DN is also known as:

  • Fake

Table 452. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/dn-donotopen.html

GarryWeber Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. Its original name is FileSpy and FileSpy Application. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, infected attachments and so on. It encryps all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures etc..

Table 453. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/garryweber.html

Satan Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. Its original name is RAAS RANSOMWARE. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, infected attachments and so on. It encryps all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures etc.. This ransomware promotes other to download viruses and spread them as ransomware to infect other users and keep 70% of the ransom. (leaving the other 30% to Satan) https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-7fwX40eYL18/WH-tfpNjDgI/AAAAAAAADPk/KVP_ji8lR0gENCMYhb324mfzIFFpiaOwACLcB/s1600/site-raas.gif RaaS

Table 454. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/satan-raas.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/637811/satan-ransomware-help-support-topic-stn-extension-help-decrypt-fileshtml/

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/the-week-in-ransomware-january-20th-2017-satan-raas-spora-locky-and-more/

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/new-satan-ransomware-available-through-a-ransomware-as-a-service-/

https://twitter.com/Xylit0l/status/821757718885236740

Havoc

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, infected attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures , videos, shared online files etc..

Havoc is also known as:

  • HavocCrypt Ransomware

Table 455. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/havoc-ransomware.html

CryptoSweetTooth Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Its fake name is Bitcoin and maker’s name is Santiago. Work of the encrypted requires the user to have .NET Framework 4.5.2. on his computer.

Table 456. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/cryptosweettooth.html

http://sensorstechforum.com/remove-cryptosweettooth-ransomware-restore-locked-files/

Kaandsona Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. The word Kaandsona is Estonian, therefore the creator is probably from Estonia. Crashes before it encrypts

Kaandsona Ransomware is also known as:

  • RansomTroll Ransomware

  • Käändsõna Ransomware

Table 457. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/kaandsona-ransomtroll.html

https://twitter.com/BleepinComputer/status/819927858437099520

LambdaLocker Ransomware

It’s directed to English and Chinese speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Python Ransomware

Table 458. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/lambdalocker.html

http://cfoc.org/how-to-restore-files-affected-by-the-lambdalocker-ransomware/

NMoreia 2.0 Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

NMoreia 2.0 Ransomware is also known as:

  • HakunaMatataRansomware

Table 459. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/hakunamatata.html

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016_03_01_archive.html

Marlboro Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Ransom is .2 bitcoin, however there is no point of even trying to pay, since this damage is irreversible. Once the ransom is paid the hacker does not return decrypt the files. Another name is DeMarlboro and it is written in language C++. Pretend to encrypt using RSA-2048 and AES-128 (really it’s just XOR)

Table 460. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/marlboro.html

https://decrypter.emsisoft.com/marlboro

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/marlboro-ransomware-defeated-in-one-day/

Spora Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Sample of a spam email with a viral attachment: https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-KkJXiHG80S0/WHX4TBpkamI/AAAAAAAADDg/F_bN796ndMYnzfUsgSWMXhRxFf3Ic-HtACLcB/s1600/spam-email.png

Table 461. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/spora-ransomware.html

https://blog.gdatasoftware.com/2017/01/29442-spora-worm-and-ransomware

http://blog.emsisoft.com/2017/01/10/from-darknet-with-love-meet-spora-ransomware/

CryptoKill Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. The files get encrypted, but the decrypt key is not available. NO POINT OF PAYING THE RANSOM, THE FILES WILL NOT BE RETURNED.

Table 462. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/cryptokill-ransomware.html

All_Your_Documents Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 463. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/allyourdocuments-ransomware.html

SerbRansom 2017 Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. The ransom is 500$ in bitcoins. The name of the hacker is R4z0rx0r Serbian Hacker.

Table 464. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/serbransom-2017.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/ultranationalist-developer-behind-serbransom-ransomware/

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/the-week-in-ransomware-february-10th-2017-serpent-spora-id-ransomware/

https://twitter.com/malwrhunterteam/status/830116190873849856

Fadesoft Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. The ransom is 0.33 bitcoins.

Table 465. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/fadesoft-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/malwrhunterteam/status/829768819031805953

https://twitter.com/malwrhunterteam/status/838700700586684416

HugeMe Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 466. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/hugeme-ransomware.html

https://www.ozbargain.com.au/node/228888?page=3

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/04/magic-ransomware.html

DynA-Crypt Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

DynA-Crypt Ransomware is also known as:

  • DynA CryptoLocker Ransomware

Table 467. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/dyna-crypt-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/dyna-crypt-not-only-encrypts-your-files-but-also-steals-your-info/

Serpent 2017 Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Serpent 2017 Ransomware is also known as:

  • Serpent Danish Ransomware

Table 468. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/serpent-danish-ransomware.html

Erebus 2017 Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 469. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/erebus-2017-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/erebus-ransomware-utilizes-a-uac-bypass-and-request-a-90-ransom-payment/

Cyber Drill Exercise

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Cyber Drill Exercise is also known as:

  • Ransomuhahawhere

Table 470. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/ransomuhahawhere.html

Cancer Ransomware FAKE

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. This is a trollware that does not encrypt your files but makes your computer act crazy (like in the video in the link below). It is meant to be annoying and it is hard to erase from your PC, but possible.

Table 471. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/cancer-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/watch-your-computer-go-bonkers-with-cancer-trollware/

UpdateHost Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Poses as Microsoft Copyright 2017 and requests ransom in bitcoins.

Table 472. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/02/updatehost-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/startups/Windows_Update_Host-16362.html

Nemesis Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Ransom is 10 bitcoins.

Table 473. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/nemesis-ransomware.html

Evil Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Domain KZ is used, therefore it is assumed that the decrypter is from Kazakhstan. Coded in Javascript

Evil Ransomware is also known as:

  • File0Locked KZ Ransomware

Table 474. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/evil-ransomware.html

http://www.enigmasoftware.com/evilransomware-removal/

http://usproins.com/evil-ransomware-is-lurking/

https://twitter.com/jiriatvirlab/status/818443491713884161

https://twitter.com/PolarToffee/status/826508611878793219

Ocelot Ransomware (FAKE RANSOMWARE)

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. This is a fake ransomware. Your files are not really encrypted, however the attacker does ask for a ransom of .03 bitcoins. It is still dangerous even though it is fake, he still go through to your computer.

Ocelot Ransomware (FAKE RANSOMWARE) is also known as:

  • Ocelot Locker Ransomware

Table 475. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/ocelot-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/malwrhunterteam/status/817648547231371264

SkyName Ransomware

It’s directed to Czechoslovakianspeaking users. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Based on HiddenTear

SkyName Ransomware is also known as:

  • Blablabla Ransomware

Table 476. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/skyname-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/malwrhunterteam/status/817079028725190656

MafiaWare Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Ransom is 155$ inbitcoins. Creator of ransomware is called Mafia. Based on HiddenTear

MafiaWare Ransomware is also known as:

  • Depsex Ransomware

Table 477. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/mafiaware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/the-week-in-ransomware-january-6th-2017-fsociety-mongodb-pseudo-darkleech-and-more/

https://twitter.com/BleepinComputer/status/817069320937345024

Globe3 Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Ransom is 3 bitcoins. Extesion depends on the config file. It seems Globe is a ransomware kit.

Globe3 Ransomware is also known as:

  • Purge Ransomware

Table 478. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/globe3-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/624518/globe-ransomware-help-and-support-purge-extension-how-to-restore-fileshta/

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/the-globe-ransomware-wants-to-purge-your-files/

https://decryptors.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/globe3-decrypter.html

https://decrypter.emsisoft.com/globe3

BleedGreen Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Ransom is 500$ in bitcoins. Requires .NET Framework 4.0. Gets into your startup system and sends you notes like the one below: https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-xrr6aoB_giw/WG1UrGpmZJI/AAAAAAAAC-Q/KtKdQP6iLY4LHaHgudF5dKs6i1JHQOBmgCLcB/s1600/green1.jpg

BleedGreen Ransomware is also known as:

  • FireCrypt Ransomware

Table 479. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/bleedgreen-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/firecrypt-ransomware-comes-with-a-ddos-component/

BTCamant Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Original name is Mission 1996 or Mission: “Impossible” (1996) (like the movie)

Table 480. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/btcamant.html

X3M Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. It is also possible to break in using RDP Windows with the help of Pass-the-Hash system, PuTTY, mRemoteNG, TightVNC, Chrome Remote Desktop, modified version of TeamViewer, AnyDesk, AmmyyAdmin, LiteManager, Radmin and others. Ransom is 700$ in Bitcoins.

Table 481. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/x3m-ransomware.html

GOG Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 482. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/gog-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/BleepinComputer/status/816112218815266816

EdgeLocker

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Ransom is 0.1 Bitcoins. Original name is TrojanRansom.

Table 483. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/edgelocker-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/BleepinComputer/status/815392891338194945

Red Alert

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Fake name: Microsoft Corporation. Based on HiddenTear

Table 484. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/red-alert-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/JaromirHorejsi/status/815557601312329728

First

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 485. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/first-ransomware.html

XCrypt Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Written on Delphi. The user requests the victim to get in touch with him through ICQ to get the ransom and return the files.

Table 486. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/xcrypt-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/JakubKroustek/status/825790584971472902

7Zipper Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 487. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/7zipper-ransomware.html

https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-ClM0LCPjQuk/WI-BgHTpdNI/AAAAAAAADc8/JyEQ8-pcJmsXIntuP-MMdE-pohVncxTXQCLcB/s1600/7-zip-logo.png

Zyka Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Ransom is 170$ or EUR in Bitcoins.

Table 488. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/zyka-ransomware.html

https://www.pcrisk.com/removal-guides/10899-zyka-ransomware

https://download.bleepingcomputer.com/demonslay335/StupidDecrypter.zip

https://twitter.com/GrujaRS/status/826153382557712385

SureRansom Ransomeware (Fake)

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to strike worldwide. This ransomware does not really encrypt your files. Ransom requested is £50 using credit card.

Table 489. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/sureransom-ransomware.html

http://www.forbes.com/sites/leemathews/2017/01/27/fake-ransomware-is-tricking-people-into-paying/#777faed0381c

Netflix Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. This ransomware uses the known online library as a decoy. It poses as Netflix Code generator for Netflix login, but instead encrypts your files. The ransom is 100$ in Bitcoins.

Table 490. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/01/netflix-ransomware.html

http://blog.trendmicro.com/trendlabs-security-intelligence/netflix-scam-delivers-ransomware/

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/rogue-netflix-app-spreads-netix-ransomware-that-targets-windows-7-and-10-users/

http://www.darkreading.com/attacks-breaches/netflix-scam-spreads-ransomware/d/d-id/1328012

https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-bQQ4DTIClvA/WJCIh6Uq2nI/AAAAAAAADfY/hB5HcjuGgh8rRJKeLHoIRz3Ezth22-wCEw/s1600/form1.jpg[https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-bQQ4DTIClvA/WJCIh6Uq2nI/AAAAAAAADfY/hB5HcjuGgh8rRJKeLHoIRz3Ezth22-wCEw/s1600/form1.jpg]

https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-ZnWdPDprJOg/WJCPeCtP4HI/AAAAAAAADfw/kR0ifI1naSwTAwSuOPiw8ZCPr0tSIz1CgCLcB/s1600/netflix-akk.png

Merry Christmas

It’s directed to English and Italian speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. Most attacks are on organizations and servers. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. They pose as a Consumer complaint notification that’s coming from Federal Trade Commission from USA, with an attached file called “complaint.pdf”. Written in Delphi by hacker MicrRP.

Merry Christmas is also known as:

  • Merry X-Mas

  • MRCR

Table 491. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/mrcr1-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/-merry-christmas-ransomware-now-steals-user-private-data-via-diamondfox-malware/

http://www.zdnet.com/article/not-such-a-merry-christmas-the-ransomware-that-also-steals-user-data/

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/merry-christmas-ransomware-and-its-dev-comodosecurity-not-bringing-holiday-cheer/

https://decrypter.emsisoft.com/mrcr

Seoirse Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Seoirse is how in Ireland people say the name George. Ransom is 0.5 Bitcoins.

Table 492. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/seoirse-ransomware.html

KillDisk Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Every file is encrypted with a personal AES-key, and then AES-key encrypts with a RSA-1028 key. Hacking by TeleBots (Sandworm). Goes under a fake name: Update center or Microsoft Update center.

Table 493. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/killdisk-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/killdisk-ransomware-now-targets-linux-prevents-boot-up-has-faulty-encryption/

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/killdisk-disk-wiping-malware-adds-ransomware-component/

http://www.zdnet.com/article/247000-killdisk-ransomware-demands-a-fortune-forgets-to-unlock-files/

http://www.securityweek.com/destructive-killdisk-malware-turns-ransomware

http://www.welivesecurity.com/2017/01/05/killdisk-now-targeting-linux-demands-250k-ransom-cant-decrypt/

https://cyberx-labs.com/en/blog/new-killdisk-malware-brings-ransomware-into-industrial-domain/

DeriaLock Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Maker is arizonacode and ransom amount is 20-30$. If the victim decides to pay the ransom, he will have to copy HWID and then speak to the hacker on Skype and forward him the payment.

Table 494. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/derialock-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/new-derialock-ransomware-active-on-christmas-includes-an-unlock-all-command/

BadEncript Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 495. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/badencript-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/demonslay335/status/813064189719805952

AdamLocker Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. The name of the creator is puff69.

Table 496. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/adamlocker-ransomware.html

Alphabet Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. This ransomware poses as Windows 10 Critical Update Service. Offers you to update your Windows 10, but instead encrypts your files. For successful attack, the victim must have .NET Framework 4.5.2 installed on him computer.

Table 497. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/alphabet-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/PolarToffee/status/812331918633172992

KoKoKrypt Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread by its creator in forums. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files and documents and more. The ransom is 0.1 bitcoins within 72 hours. Uses Windows Update as a decoy. Creator: Talnaci Alexandru

KoKoKrypt Ransomware is also known as:

  • KokoLocker Ransomware

Table 498. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/kokokrypt-ransomware.html

http://removevirusadware.com/tips-for-removeing-kokokrypt-ransomware/

L33TAF Locker Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Ransom is 0.5 bitcoins. The name of the creator is staffttt, he also created Fake CryptoLocker

Table 499. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/l33taf-locker-ransomware.html

PClock4 Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam (for example: “you have a criminal case against you”), fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

PClock4 Ransomware is also known as:

  • PClock SysGop Ransomware

Table 500. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/pclock4-sysgop-ransomware.html

Guster Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. This ransomware uses VBS-script to send a voice message as the first few lines of the note.

Table 501. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/guster-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/BleepinComputer/status/812131324979007492

Roga

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. The hacker requests the ransom in Play Store cards. https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-ClUef8T55f4/WGKb8U4GeaI/AAAAAAAACzg/UFD0X2sORHYTVRNBSoqd5q7TBrOblQHmgCLcB/s1600/site.png

Table 502. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/roga-ransomware.html

CryptoLocker3 Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Creator is staffttt and the ransom is 0.5 botcoins.

CryptoLocker3 Ransomware is also known as:

  • Fake CryptoLocker

Table 503. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/cryptolocker3-ransomware.html

ProposalCrypt Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. The ransom is 1.0 bitcoins.

Table 504. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/proposalcrypt-ransomware.html

http://www.archersecuritygroup.com/what-is-ransomware/

https://twitter.com/demonslay335/status/812002960083394560

https://twitter.com/malwrhunterteam/status/811613888705859586

Manifestus Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. The hacker demands 0.2 bitcoins. The ransomware poses as a Window update.

Table 505. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/manifestus-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/the-week-in-ransomware-december-23rd-2016-cryptxxx-koolova-cerber-and-more/

https://twitter.com/struppigel/status/811587154983981056

EnkripsiPC Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. The name of the hacker is humanpuff69 and he requests 0.5 bitcoins. The encryption password is based on the computer name

EnkripsiPC Ransomware is also known as:

  • IDRANSOMv3

  • Manifestus

Table 506. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/enkripsipc-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/demonslay335/status/811343914712100872

https://twitter.com/BleepinComputer/status/811264254481494016

https://twitter.com/struppigel/status/811587154983981056

BrainCrypt Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. So far the victims are from Belarus and Germany.

Table 507. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/braincrypt-ransomware.html

MSN CryptoLocker Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Ransom is 0.2 bitcoins.

Table 508. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/msn-cryptolocker-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/struppigel/status/810766686005719040

CryptoBlock Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. The ransom is in the amount is 0.3 bitcoins. The ransomware is disguises themselves as Adobe Systems, Incorporated. RaaS

Table 509. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/cryptoblock-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/drProct0r/status/810500976415281154

AES-NI Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 510. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/aes-ni-ransomware.html

Koolova Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. The hacker of this ransomware tends to make lots of spelling errors in his requests. With Italian text that only targets the Test folder on the user’s desktop

Table 511. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/koolova-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/koolova-ransomware-decrypts-for-free-if-you-read-two-articles-about-ransomware/

Fake Globe Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc… The ransom is 1bitcoin.

Fake Globe Ransomware is also known as:

  • Globe Imposter

  • GlobeImposter

Table 512. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/fake-globe-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/the-week-in-ransomware-december-30th-2016-infected-tvs-and-open-source-ransomware-sucks/

https://twitter.com/fwosar/status/812421183245287424

https://decrypter.emsisoft.com/globeimposter

https://twitter.com/malwrhunterteam/status/809795402421641216

V8Locker Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc…

Table 513. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/v8locker-ransomware.html

Cryptorium (Fake Ransomware)

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It SUPPOSEDLY encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc., however your files are not really encrypted, only the names are changed.

Table 514. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/cryptorium-ransomware.html

Antihacker2017 Ransomware

It’s directed to Russian speaking users, there fore is able to infect mosty the old USSR countries. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc … The hacker goes by the nickname Antihacker and requests the victim to send him an email for the decryption. He does not request any money only a warning about looking at porn (gay, incest and rape porn to be specific).

Table 515. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/antihacker2017-ransomware.html

CIA Special Agent 767 Ransomware (FAKE!!!)

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect users all over the world. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It SUPPOSEDLY encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc… Your files are not really encrypted and nothing actually happens, however the hacker does ask the victim to pay a sum of 100$, after 5 days the sum goes up to 250$ and thereafter to 500$. After the payment is received, the victim gets the following message informing him that he has been fooled and he simply needed to delete the note. https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-T8iSbbGOz84/WFGZEbuRfCI/AAAAAAAACm0/SO8Srwx2UIM3FPZcZl7W76oSDCsnq2vfgCPcB/s1600/code2.jpg

Table 516. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/cia-special-agent-767-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/virus-removal/remove-cia-special-agent-767-screen-locker

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/the-week-in-ransomware-december-16th-2016-samas-no-more-ransom-screen-lockers-and-more/

https://guides.yoosecurity.com/cia-special-agent-767-virus-locks-your-pc-screen-how-to-unlock/

LoveServer Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc… This hacker request your IP address in return for the decryption.

Table 517. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/loveserver-ransomware.html

Kraken Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc… The hacker requests 2 bitcoins in return for the files.

Table 518. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/kraken-ransomware.html

Antix Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc… The ransom is 0.25 bitcoins and the nickname of the hacker is FRC 2016.

Table 519. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/antix-ransomware.html

PayDay Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc… The ransom is R$950 which is due in 5 days. (R$ is a Brazilian currency) Based off of Hidden-Tear

Table 520. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/payday-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/BleepinComputer/status/808316635094380544

Slimhem Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is NOT spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It simply places a decrypt file on your computer.

Table 521. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/slimhem-ransomware.html

M4N1F3STO Ransomware (FAKE!!!!!)

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc… FILES DON’T REALLY GET DELETED NOR DO THEY GET ENCRYPTED!!!!!!!

Table 522. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/m4n1f3sto-ransomware.html

Dale Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc… CHIP > DALE

Dale Ransomware is also known as:

  • DaleLocker Ransomware

UltraLocker Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc… Based on the idiotic open-source ransomware called CryptoWire

Table 523. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/ultralocker-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/struppigel/status/807161652663742465

AES_KEY_GEN_ASSIST Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc…

Table 524. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/aeskeygenassist-ransomware.html

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/09/dxxd-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/634258/aes-key-gen-assistprotonmailcom-help-support/

Code Virus Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 525. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/code-virus-ransomware.html

FLKR Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 526. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/flkr-ransomware.html

PopCorn Time Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. These hackers claim to be students from Syria. This ransomware poses as the popular torrent movie screener called PopCorn. These criminals give you the chance to retrieve your files “for free” by spreading this virus to others. Like shown in the note bellow: https://www.bleepstatic.com/images/news/ransomware/p/Popcorn-time/refer-a-friend.png

Table 527. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/popcorntime-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/new-scheme-spread-popcorn-time-ransomware-get-chance-of-free-decryption-key/

HackedLocker Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc… NO POINT OF PAYING THE RANSOM—THE HACKER DOES NOT GIVE A DECRYPT AFTERWARDS.

Table 528. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/hackedlocker-ransomware.html

GoldenEye Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc…

Table 529. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/goldeneye-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/petya-ransomware-returns-with-goldeneye-version-continuing-james-bond-theme/

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/634778/golden-eye-virus/

Sage Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc…

Table 530. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/sage-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/634978/sage-file-sample-extension-sage/

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/634747/sage-20-ransomware-sage-support-help-topic/

SQ_ Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc… This hacker requests 4 bitcoins for ransom.

SQ_ Ransomware is also known as:

  • VO_ Ransomware

Table 531. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/sq-vo-ransomware.html

Matrix

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc…

Matrix is also known as:

  • Malta Ransomware

Table 532. Table References

Links

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/the-week-in-ransomware-december-2nd-2016-screenlockers-kangaroo-the-sfmta-and-more/

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/12/matrix-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/rommeljoven17/status/804251901529231360

Satan666 Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 533. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/11/satan666-ransomware.html

RIP (Phoenix) Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Based on HiddenTear

Table 534. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/11/rip-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/BleepinComputer/status/804810315456200704

Locked-In Ransomware or NoValid Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Based on RemindMe

Table 535. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/11/novalid-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/634754/locked-in-ransomware-help-support-restore-corupted-fileshtml/

https://twitter.com/struppigel/status/807169774098796544

Chartwig Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 536. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/11/chartwig-ransomware.html

RenLocker Ransomware (FAKE)

It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. The files don’t actually get encrypted, their names get changed using this formula: [number][.crypter]

Table 537. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/11/renlocker-ransomware.html

Thanksgiving Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 538. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/11/thanksgiving-ransomware.html

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/07/stampado-ransomware-1.html

https://twitter.com/BleepinComputer/status/801486420368093184

CockBlocker Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Table 539. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/11/cockblocker-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/jiriatvirlab/status/801910919739674624

Lomix Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Based on the idiotic open-source ransomware called CryptoWire

Table 540. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/11/lomix-ransomware.html

https://twitter.com/siri_urz/status/801815087082274816

OzozaLocker Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. https://3.bp.blogspot.com/--jubfYRaRmw/WDaOyZXkAaI/AAAAAAAACQE/E63a4FnaOfACZ07s1xUiv_haxy8cp5YCACLcB/s1600/ozoza2.png

Table 541. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/11/ozozalocker-ransomware.html

https://decrypter.emsisoft.com/ozozalocker

https://twitter.com/malwrhunterteam/status/801503401867673603

Crypute Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

Crypute Ransomware is also known as:

  • m0on Ransomware

Table 542. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/11/crypute-ransomware-m0on.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/virus-removal/threat/ransomware/

NMoreira Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..

NMoreira Ransomware is also known as:

  • Fake Maktub Ransomware

Table 543. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/11/nmoreira-ransomware.html

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/10/airacrop-ransomware.html

VindowsLocker Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. The ransom amount is 349.99$ and the hacker seems to be from India. He disguises himself as Microsoft Support.

Table 544. Table References

Links

https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/11/vindowslocker-ransomware.html

https://malwarebytes.app.box.com/s/gdu18hr17mwqszj3hjw5m3sw84k8hlph

https://rol.im/VindowsUnlocker.zip

https://twitter.com/JakubKroustek/status/800729944112427008

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/vindowslocker-ransomware-mimics-tech-support-scam-not-the-other-way-around/

Donald Trump 2 Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Here is the original ransomware under this name: http://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/09/donald-trump-ransomware.html

Table 545. Table References

Links

http://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2016/09/donald-trump-ransomware.html

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/the-donald-trump-ransomware-tries-to-build-walls-around-your-files/

Nagini Ransomware

It’s directed to English speaking users, therefore is able to infect worldwide. It is spread using email spam, fake updates, attachments and so on. It encrypts all your files, including: music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc.. Looks for C:\Temp\voldemort.horcrux